Abstract: To design the scope of the research, there are three main strands to characterise neoliberalism, being: i) A powerful punitive state and social control are rising. Moral conservatism, on the other hand, is rapidly curtailing individual rights (such as freedom), imposing a familistic outlook on society; ii) Neoliberalism can be regarded as a political attempt to re-establish the conditions of capital accumulation and reestablish the power of economic elites from a Marxist perspective; and iii) It is a political ideology that refers to the re-engineering of the state to assist the formation and establishment of markets, to instil a competitive ethos in all aspects of life, and to limit social initiatives and substitute them with prisons. Allied to these strands, the new world reason that characterises neoliberalism has found support in moral conservatism, a religious, traditional, and patriotic perspective of moral values, family, and politics in countries such as Brazil. As a result, the goal of this study is to determine the influence that the international neoliberalism fenomenon combined with moral conservatism has had on human rights in Brazil: how are human rights protected in this environment? In neoliberalism, who is the subject of human rights? Which rights are the most severely impacted? It begins by assuming that neoliberalism's critique of society results in the abolition of political citizenship and a focus on ultra-individualism. With the decline of social policies and the state's involvement in supplying them, social rights are becoming increasingly fragile. The strong penal state and social control are growing in their place. Individual rights (such as freedom) are, on the other hand, increasingly curtailed by moral conservatism, which imposes a familistic perspective on society.

Keywords: Human Rights, neoliberalism, Brazil, incarceration, conservatism.
Human Rights in the Face of Neoliberalism: Precarisation of Social Rights, Incarceration and Moral Conservatism in Brazil as Part of an International Phenomenon
Rocco Stainsack Rocha, Sofia
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Abstract: The Nurse Rostering Problem (NRP) is a highly constrained combinatory problem. Mathematical Modelling approaches may successfully solve small instances, but their performance is limited by the number of decision variables and time available for more complex instances and real-world scenarios. Heuristics methods can tackle the problem through a different perspective: decomposing models, creating sub-Mixed-Integer Problems (MIPS) and generating feasible solutions quickly. In this article, we will review some constructive heuristics and local search methods such as relax-and-fix, fix-and-optimize, and proximity search. The purpose is to provide a trustful source to understand these methods that can be merged to tailor better schedules, not only for NRP but for other personnel rostering problems.

Keywords: Nurse Rostering Problem, Heuristics, Relax-and-fix, Fix-and-optimize, Proximity Search.
An Introduction to Nurse Rostering Problem Heuristics Methods
Rodrigues da Silva, Guilherme Ramon
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Abstract: This article presents a narrative literature review of a selected sample of literature regarding the phenomenon of paradiplomacy by the subnational unities in the Brazilian federation. Through the criteria-based selection of open-source journals, followed by analysis and cross-reference, the research provides insight into multiple perspectives regarding Brazilian paradiplomacy. Additionally, the article identifies several research gaps brought forth by recent changes in the international and Brazilian political and social landscape, gaps that then allow for the conclusion that further research is possible on the topic, focused on multiple new objects, and possible theoretical focuses.

Keywords: Paradiplomacy, federal diplomacy, literature review, Brazil, decentralized international cooperation.
Paradiplomacy Studies in Brazil in the 21st Century: A Narrative Literature Review
Rodrigues de Oliveira, Vinícius
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Abstract: The concept of climate change has become well-known by the international community. Its consequences are innumerable, and among them, an impact on migration can be seen. In the last decades, the literature has developed an urge to recognize those displaced due to climate change and ways to define them. In this research, we analyse different factors found in the literature that impact the definition of environmentally displaced persons. Were explored the general aspects of the theoretical construction of ‘environmental refugees’, and the factors that are taken into account for this characterization. It was discussed how to define an environmental refugee based on the previous findings and the importance of this identification.

Keywords: Environmental refugees, international migration, displacement, climate changing, migration studies.
Environmental Refugees: A Literature Review
Rodrigues Lima, Sophia
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Abstract: Contrast enhancement and exposure correction techniques are important in many applications that rely on images captured by cameras. This paper reviews such techniques. Focus is made on histogram based and learning based methods. It was observed that newer methods attempt to overcome drawbacks of previous methods, but to achieve this they often reduce the enhancement capability and add computational load. It was also observed a growing use of learning based methods in this field, specially methods using deep convolution neural networks (CNNs). A conclusion of this review is that newer methods are in general not replacements to previous methods; each method has its advantages and drawbacks and is more appropriate to specific problems and applications.

Keywords: Image processing, contrast enhancement, exposure correction, histogram equalization, deep learning.
A Short Review on Classical and Recent Contrast Enhancement and Exposure Correction Techniques
Rocha Barbosa, Matheus
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Abstract: This paper aims to analyze the social and ambiental impacts which came from the construction of Belo Monte hydroelectric in Pará State, Brazil. Despite the discourse of governments authorities about the development that this hydroelectric would bring to the region, in practice, according to the literature review, other points can be demonstrated, such as the impact of Belo Monte’s plant on social groups and the resettlement that they were subjected
to. Moreover, the approach given by the government to the ambiental consequences and especially for the community was, still, analyzed by human rights authorities, as the Interamerican Court of Human Rights. In the article, the main points of view on the topic addressed were highlighted and explained, taking into account the motivations of each interested party. According to the point of view presented, the intention was not to solve these issues, but analyze the main points vinculated with the social groups impacted by the construction and the ambiental damages, as there is still much to be taken into account, which adds to the complexity of the subject. This demonstrated objective was to impartially show the different points opposed, thus opening precedents for questions still unanswered. In conclusion to the work, it was based on the occurrence of EIA (Ambiental Impact Study - Estudo de Impacto Ambiental) and its effort (or lack of it) to contemplating all the aspects that should be analyzed, such as the recognition of each social group affected and also the environmental areas flooded or damaged with the drought of the alteration of the river course.

Keywords: Belo Monte. Hydroelectric. Social impact. Ambiental impact. Human rights.
Belo Monte: A Macro View on Environmental and Social Impacts at Pará
Rocha Maximino de Oliveira, William
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Abstract: This paper looks at some of how people can be constitutive parts of a literary narrative. Based on the reading of the novel Uno, Nessuno e Centomila by the Italian Luigi Pirandello, seeks to demonstrate here how the main character of the novel, Vitangelo Moscarda, emulates characteristics of a person when constituting a narrative of himself. For this, we read some passages of the narrative in first-person and associate them with the notion of "embodied narrative", while we perceive the conflict that Moscarda represents by constituting himself as a character who acquires a consciousness derived from the comprehension of the limits of the body's understanding. Moscarda believed he knew how his body was seen by the people around him, but a comment from his wife about his nose followed by recognition in the mirror of his own "deformed" image make him forced to leave behind the image he had of himself and build a new one, now with the help of a narrative of himself We conclude our analysis by observing that the first-person narrative of Vitangelo Moscarda follows as a passage from the incomprehension of the body to the possession of a new body, which is equivalent to the possession of a new self and the process of becoming a person.

Keywords: Embodied narrative, Luigi Pirandello, Literary person, Self, Literary theory.
Becoming a Person Beyond the Embodied Narrative
Saldanha da Silva, Valmir Luis
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Abstract: In the experience economy, customer experience (CX) can create value and differentiate companies in a given sector. This article brings a recent definition of CX and what has recently been studied by researchers. Although not yet well defined, CX can be understood as the customer's spontaneous reaction to offering-related stimuli along the customer journey. Some topics studied are new technologies and their impact on CX, the impact of CX on customer loyalty, commitment, engagement and behavioral intention, CX driven business model, and CX on online shopping.

Keywords: Customer Experience, Literature Review.
Customer Experience: A Literature Review
Salles de Araujo, Heitor
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Abstract: Costochondritis (CC) or anterior chest wall syndrome, may be defined as an inflammation of the costochondral junctions of ribs that causes an intense ache.(1,2) Though it is considered a self-limited condition, it’s characterized by multiple incidences during the period of one year what may keep the athlete apart from its practice. Though there’s a lot in literature that shares about the CC condition, there’s too little about other treatment strategies apart from the medicament. Apparently, there’s no consensus in the literature what treatments options are indicated for this disease (3), and there’s a lack of scientific evidence that appoints how other potential treatments may be used to accelerate the healing processes in CC, decreasing the painful condition and allowing athletes to return to their practice as soon as possible. This study aimed to search in the present literature and analyze the options of non-medicament treatment for costochondritis, in addition to its efficacy. Its secondary objective was to observe the literature itself and to investigate the offer of studies that address this subject. To perform this literature review, it was used search tools from Google Academic, PubMed and Science Direct to select 8 studies from peer-reviewed Journals. There are several non-medicament options that may help in the Costochondritis treatment and pain-relief, as it has been seen in the literature review: Manual Therapy, Dry Needling, Acupuncture, Nerve Blocks, Extracorporeal Shockwaves. The papers in this review presented great results of these therapies in reducing CC symptoms and allowing the patient to resume his/her sports activities, however, the studies displayed are mainly case reports. Thus, it’s necessary to perform more high-evidence studies to prove the efficacy of these treatment methods and to fill the gap of the lack of studies that address Costochondritis.

Keywords: Costochondritis; Non-medicament treatment; Chest Pain; Physical Therapy; Athletes.
Treatments for Costochondritis In Athletes: A Literature Review
Santos Faciulli, Juliana
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Abstract: Humic substances (HS) are still a challenge to understand and define even after centuries of study. HS are present everywhere, in soil or in natural waters, and play an important role in the environment. Even though it is not fully explained, scientists have observed some common features about the chemical and molecular composition and behavior under certain conditions for the HS, which allows the advancement of science and practical applications, such as in agriculture and in the treatment of places contaminated by heavy metals, organic or inorganic compounds. These uses are only possible because HS exhibit enormous variability in terms of functional groups, molecular size and behavior. A number of factors from the extraction method used to the mineralogy of the soil or characteristics of the water where the HS are sampled affects their features. Some general statements can be made about HS, which are broadly defined as structurally complex macromolecules resulting from the microbiological decomposition of organic matter, however details about its origin and structure are still unclear and are treated as a black box. In addition, it is still not possible to study HS in situ and some authors question whether samples obtained by classical extraction methods are able to represent faithfully the HS. In this context, this article compiles some information about molecular composition, molecular mass, colloid properties, interactions of HS with the environment, factors that affect its behavior or structure and some applications studied. This article aims to introduce the subject, explaining simple concepts and providing useful references.

Keywords: Humic substances, humification, soil, natural organic matter, colloidal particles.
Introduction to Humic Substances: Compilation of Data and Fundamental Concepts
Santos Ilha, Gabrielle
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Abstract: This brief paper presents a review about linear parameter-varying (LPV) systems, addressing main approaches for the analysis and control designs. Moreover, some perspectives are discussed regarding its future applications. This LPV framework can be used to represent and model many different problems and systems, such as automotive systems, flight control, magnetic systems, among many others. Given the attention received by this system class, this survey aims to provide basic considerations regarding the representation of LPV systems and main mathematical definitions, including main techniques for the polytopic approach. As the Lyapunov functions remains one of the most used approaches to deal with such problems, this paper focuses on addressing their use. Finally, usual applications and problems of LPV systems are assessed in order to support the consideration of new study topics for this framework.

Keywords: LPV systems, stability analysis conditions, control design conditions.
Linear Parameter-Varying Systems: A Brief Review and Perspectives of the Polytopic Approach
Senna de Oliveira, Matheus
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Abstract: Wind is a very important meteorological variable in the physical processes of the atmosphere, playing a decisive role in the distribution of heat and humidity. Although the wind is a parameter of great importance for understanding convective effects, to obtain a good knowledge of the winds, the analysis of data in a short period is not enough, the ideal would be the analysis of data relating to several years. The use of information derived from remote platforms such as satellites or airborne sensors is increasing, especially for studies of the behavior of winds on the sea surface. From the wind speed data by the Blended Sea Winds (BSW) product of level 4 processing, made available by the Copernicus Marine Service, historical series of wind speeds were extracted every 6 hours, for the 4 main synoptic times, from 1992 to 2018. The study area comprises the entire coastline of the coast of Brazil from the northern border with French Guiana to the southern border with Uruguay and extends between the parallels 5° N and 36° S latitude, and 55° W and 20° W longitude. To study the variation of wind speed over time, 18 points were chosen and from them annual, seasonal and monthly wind speed graphs were made. Historical, seasonal and hourly average speed calculations were made, and maps were generated for each average, as well as speed variance calculations. The results show that the average offshore wind speeds off the Brazilian coast range from 4 m/s to 10 m/s, and its greatest variation is latitudinal. The seasons of the year have a great influence on the average wind speeds in Brazil and the spring season has the highest wind speeds.

Keywords: Wind, blended sea winds, Brazil, offshore, climatology here your keywords, separated from each other with a comma.
Climatology of the Winds Along the Brazilian Coast
Schmitz Vargas, Daniela
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Abstract: In view of the fact that the interpretive resource of using elements of foreign legal decisions in national court decisions is a reality in many courts, the present study analyses the concept and functions of Comparative Law. Therefore, in methodological terms, it makes use of basic bibliographic research, both Brazilian and international. In the end, it summarizes the main theoretical understandings on the subject, stating that Comparative Law consists of the field of legal studies through which similarities and differences between elements, branches or areas, legal systems and legal families, are identified. Furthermore, regarding its functions, it concludes that Comparative Law has primary (or epistemological) and secondary (or heuristic) functions, serving to increase legal knowledge and having applications in legislative policy and in the reasoning of judicial decisions.

Keywords: Comparative Law, concept, functions.
The Concept and Functions of Comparative Law
Schoeninger Vieira, Guilherme
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Abstract: When it comes to Brazilian Modernism, Anita Malfatti’s artworks are not only of extreme importance to the development of the movement itself, but also one of the most prominent voices in the plastic arts of the time, heavily influenced by the European expressionist and fauvist movements. On the other hand, this artist’s existence as a woman seemed to negatively impact her works’ reception and recognition, especially when her paintings and herself were constantly compared and put against other women from the same time period in Brazil, such as Tarsila do Amaral. In this matter, the present article discusses Anita’s trajectory and the female recognition in Brazilian Modernist Era, taking on account scrutiny faced and support obtained, alongside with her close friend and fellow Modernist Mario de Andrade’s own behaviour towards both women. That being the case, it focuses on how Anita, Tarsila and other Modernist women lacked direct support for their art and weren’t promoted for their own expertise and artistic skills without the involvement of their physical appearance and social involvement with society’s biggest names in 20th century Brazil and internationally.

Keywords: Brazilian Modernism, Anita Malfatti, female artists, female recognition, vanguardist movements.
Anita Malfatti and the Female Artist’s Recognition in the Brazilian Modernist Era
Silva Ferreira, Gabriela Mara
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Abstract: Technologies associated with Industry 4.0 are reshaping manufacturing production for good. Many companies have been using this opportunity to expand and further develop their smart service offerings, which consists of the integration of technologically-mediated services that exchange data between service providers and customers. Smart services enable manufacturing companies to shift from simple product providers, to service providers, offering considerable benefits for them and for their customers. The aim of this paper is to explore how manufacturing companies are financially benefiting from smart service provision, and if so, how are these benefits being evaluated and managed. In order to address the paper’s objective, a qualitative research was conducted among nine Brazilian manufacturing small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) from the electrotechnical industry, distributed along four different national states. The research consisted of interviews that were carried out in March 2022 with experienced managers, partners and executives from the case companies. All of the respondents have been implementing smart services into their offerings, for different specificities and purposes, presenting a positive response towards its implementation. The findings evinced that most companies indicated that smart services have been a lucrative source of financial benefits. However, companies lack a clear business framework to effectively capture financial value from smart services.

Keywords: Smart services, Manufacturing companies, Digital servitization, Industry 4.0, Brazil.
Smart Services in Manufacturing and Their Financial Benefits: Evidence From Brazil
Silva Ferreira de Souza, Flávio Vinicius
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Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to outline a research account about an event of approach between the philosophical thought of Jacques Derrida, usually gathered together under the signature of “deconstruction”, and the architecture in general, but more particularly in the field of the named “deconstructionist architecture”. To proceed like that, a research was done to study, based primarily on the literature review, the “invitation event” of the architect Bernard Tschumi calling Derrida to work on his project with another well-known architect, Peter Eisenman. The project, in general, was the building and development of a new public space at the city of Paris called Le Parc de la Villette, one of the named Grandes Travaux, done under the presidency of François Mitterrand. In accepting the inviting, we claim, Derrida narrowed even more the attaches between the philosophical thinking of “deconstruction” and the thought of architecture, even if in his early work this attachments were, of course, all readable. At the same time, the philosophical thinking of deconstruction influenced the architecture and the architecture influenced the named “deconstruction”. Even if the objective it is not to compare the “deconstructionist architecture” as whole with Derrida’s work, the focusing on this event could held some basic notes between these two areas. It is a singular event to start to think together the mutual implications of one to another.

Keywords: Deconstruction, Architecture, “Deconstructionist Architecture”. Jacques Derrida, Parc de la Villette.
Deconstruction and Architecture. Basic Notes About This Encounter for a Further Research
Silva Martins, Joăo Pedro
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Abstract: China, in recent decades, has achieved high levels of economic and social development; however, it came with the cost of high environmental degradation, which has been putting the advancements in jeopardy. To change this perspective, the country has been investing its legislative capacity to create a well-developed environmental protection system. The Civil Code is the latest instrument of this tendency and was responsible for bringing essential innovations, including a new general principle and the expansion of civil liability rules for environmental damage. The Green Principle comes not only to align the new legislative instrument to the concept of ecological civilization (shengtai wenming ⽂明) but also in an attempt to guide the conduct of private individuals in the direction of conservation, turning sustainable development a possible objective. Parallel, the Code has reaffirmed and expanded the rules on civil liability, furnishing the state and private entities with tools to repair/compensate for the damage and punish the tortfeasors. This paper intends to present and analyze this new approach of China through a systematic analysis of the Code and the most recent doctrine.

Keywords: Green principle, sustainable development, environmental responsibility.
Environmental Protection in the New Chinese Civil Code
Silva Zanuzzi, Vinícius
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Abstract: Although the term sustainable development is widely known, there are doubts if humanity is going in this direction. Not only because of the impact of human actions, but in the way it is measured. How to know if there is progress towards sustainability development without metrics? The objective of this article was to carry out a small systematic review about ways to measure sustainable development and its limitations on a global scale. The Web of Science (WoS) was the database used. The keyword "sustainable development" was searched and 26509 articles were found. To refine the search the filter by title and period of time (2019-2021) was applied resulting in 85 articles. After an accurate reading , only 6 of them were useful. Two ways of measurement were found: The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and Sustainable Development Index (SDI). The limitations to measure sustainable development taken were: lack of data, unclear definitions or terminology, the problem with wrong translations, the environmental system simplifications and financial costs. In the period from 1994 to 2021, there was an upward trend in the number of articles published in WoS with the mentioned filters, which indicates progress towards answers. As the planetary boundaries are crossed, it increases the importance of measure and act beyond decisions related to the development of humanity.

Keywords: Sustainable development measurement, limits of sustainable development, development environmental metrics.
Sustainable Development: Measurable, or Not Measurable, That Is the Question
Silvestre Puchalski, Beatriz
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Abstract: The aim of this article was to analyse the effects of social welfare policies on the international relations. The purposes of this article referred to the perspectives of change in the world, the role of social welfare policies, and how they directly impacted the maintenance of international organizations and governments, as well as the process of internationalization and cultural integration to improve multilateral relations in contemporary times. Social welfare policies play a crucial role in the development of society. This paper provided new insights into the impact of social welfare policies. Research and data were analyzed, which object to the association between these policies and global relations. The results indicated the practices of these policies, as well as their effects which directly impact on social and global development. This study revealed a more critical approach that involves the benefits of these policies in favor of social and global progress. This impact was observed through the action of international organizations that are also responsible in the elaboration of social policies, transnationalism that comes from the globalization process, in addition to new global trends such as: the ideas of social impact represented by the "social impact jobs" and the concept of sustainable development and its association with the practices of social welfare policies.

Keywords: Social welfare policies, international relations, internationalization, cultural integration, global development.
The Impact of Social Welfare Policies on International Relations
Sousa Chaves Clovis, Anna Beatriz
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Abstract: Silicon is found in soil and is one of the most dominant mineral nutrients in plants. This mineral helps intolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, besides increasing photosynthetic activity and nutrient uptake by plants. The vitromorphogenic potential of plant cells and tissues from several species also showed a high increase through the supplementation of silicon sources to the culture media. For this reason, the Si exogenous application to culture media can bring new perspectives to the in vitro cultivation of plants that aim to develop organogenesis, embryogenesis, and other clonal mass propagation techniques. In this regard, this review aims to summarize the role and possibilities of the application of silicon on in vitro cell and tissue cultures.

Keywords: Silicon, micropropagation, culture media, suplementation.
The Role of Silicon on In Vitro Plant Culture
Terhaag, Kathleen
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Abstract: The institute of preventive detention as a measure to secure criminal procedures is a highly debated topic in the legal field, since there are many concerns regarding the respect of Human Rights during a penal trial, specifically bearing the presumption of innocence in mind. Around the world, many norms have been incorporated to the countries’ legal systems in order to try to preserve the considered to be most valuable personal rights. This article will, then, analyze the law regulating the prisons under preventive measures in both Brazil and the Czech Republic, to point out the differences and similarities in the legislation, under the light of Human Rights institutes integrated to these countries legal systems.

Keywords: Preventive Prison, Preventive Measures, Criminal Law, Criminal Procedure, Human Rights, Brazil, Czech Republic.
Preventive Detention Under Brazilian and Czech Legislations
Toledo Santos, Isadora
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Abstract: Artisanal fishing is of greater importance to the economy in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, where this category of fishing represents a substantial local fishing production due to the several rivers that exist over the State and allows the growth of many fish species. Although there is a period called Piracema, which is equivalent to the spawning season, which makes the fishing activity forbidden during this time of the year. Thus, this season is followed by State and Federal Regulations that make the fishing prohibited and purpose control all fishery activity throughout this period. This study aims to display the fishing prohibition legislation and discuss its importance for the maintenance of fishing preservation on the environment and its impacts on Artisanal fishermen in the State of Santa Catarina who only have the fishing as a labor economy. In this last situation, the study reveals the unemployment insurance for fishermen during fishing prohibition developed by the Santa Catarina's government to minimize the financial damages that happen to the fishermen as well as the methods used for fishing and types of fish that are possible to angling during the Piracema season while the fertilization and development of the fish happen in the environment. Furthermore, the methodology used in this work was the literature review, which was based on secondary data collection from educational institutions, governments, archives, and legislations, among other sources listed in the references.

Keywords: Piracema, spawning season, artisanal fishing economy, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, law of fishing prohibition, sustainability.
Law of Fishing Prohibition: The Impacts of the Piracema Period on the Artisanal Fishing Economy in the State of
Santa Catarina
Vianna de Abreu Barreto, Luiza
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Abstract: The article starts by giving a general overview of the brazilian tax system. Thereafter, an analysis is made of the Czech Republic counterpart. concluding, the differences and similarities between the taxation applicable in both countries are discussed, with the discovery that the basic framework of both systems is very similar, though there are many disparities between what activites are taxed.

Keywords: Tax, Investment, Capital Market, Tax Exemption, Income Tax, Brazil, Czech Republic.
International Comparison of Tax Systems
Viegas Bernardi da Cruz, Felipe
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Abstract: Earth’s resources are limited, and environmental indicators such as Overshoot Day and Ecological Footprint show that humankind is exhausting them before they are able to renew themselves naturally. Hence the need to seek consumption alternatives in order to not exhaust planet Earth. One of these alternatives, upcycling, fits this demand, as it seeks to use waste as raw material, instead of natural resources and all the burden that their extraction causes to the planet. With that in mind, this paper presents the practice of upcycling and its relevance to society; connects the practice with the science of Geography; and reviews the scenery of upcycling in the city of Curitiba, by reviewing the online presence of brands and analysing the connection of the practice with Curitiba's history as a "clean city". It was found that there is a promising scene of the practice in Curitiba, however, it requires a purchasing power that is not accessible to a lower-middle class population and, therefore, the potential of this practice as a factor for large-scale environmental change is questioned. To become more advantageous and, consequently, more widespread, practices such as upcycling should mind two factors: high prices and, for the fashion industry, small availability of clothing sizes. Geography relates to all of this and is able to give the support to make this kind of analysis due to its holistic nature.

Keywords: Upcycling, natural resources, Curitiba.
Upcycling as an Alternative to Depletion of Natural Resources: The Curitiba Scenery
Vieira Zanella, Antonia
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Abstract: Chagas disease (CD), caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is a neglected tropical disease that affects more than 6 million people worldwide, mainly in areas of Latin America. Currently, there is no vaccine against Chagas disease and the available drugs (benznidazole and nifurtimox) are poorly effective and have been associated with several side effects. Therefore, research initiatives to identify new lead compounds for treating Chagas disease are required. Concomitant, natural products have stood out as a source of potential bioactive compounds and Brazilian research groups have been conducting studies on the identification of new molecules. In this context, this study reviews Brazilian publications on Web of Science database in terms of natural product chemical diversity, identification of potential compounds with trypanocidal effect and characterization of hit compounds identified through phenotypic-based screening. From 2012 to 2022, fifty three papers reported four hundred and forty nine active molecules to fight different strains and life stages of the parasite. Plant derived extract, marine derived extract and microorganisms were the classes of compounds, which had the required IC50 potency and SI selectivity to be a hit compound, indicating that natural products can be an important source of potential new drugs to treat Chagas disease.

Keywords: Trypanosoma cruzi, natural product, drug development.
Drug Candidates for Chagas Disease: A Mini Review on Natural Products in Brazil
Wen Ya So, Fernanda
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Abstract: Marxist thought reached its most relevant position as a "policy tool" in a State in the Soviet Union (USSR). Inasmuch as Marx considered religion "the opium of the people", it is not surprising that it was a sensitive topic to the Union. In this context, several Sovietologists (scholars of the Soviet Union) focused on how the Soviet Union dealt with the issue. The present research intends to open up a new venue for understanding the Cold War by analyzing how the Sovietologist discourse approached religion by conferring natural predicates to the USSR. The main hypothesis is that the Sovietologist discourse constructed the subjectivity of the USSR from conditions of possibility that characterized it as inferior, expansionist, and contradictory. Following Foucault, the archeological method was deployed in order to understand how utterances on religion took place under the conditions of possibility of the Sovietologist discourse. In practical terms, the analysis considered several papers on religion that were published in the journal "Soviet Studies", one of the most important in the field of Sovietology. After the reading of eight articles, it was possible to infer that: 1) contradictoriness is, in fact, the basis of the discourse of Sovietologists; 2) expansiveness and inferiority are present characteristics, but not necessarily central; 3) characteristics such as combativeness to religion and the Soviet inability to deal with religious issues are pivotal in the discourse.

Keywords: Sovietology, Sovietologist Discourse, Religion, USSR, Discourse.
Soviet Union and Religion: An Analysis of the Sovietologist Discourse
Wallauer de Leăo, Tales Augusto
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Abstract: The limits demarcation commissions were sent to the colony for the purpose of delimitation of the frontiers between Portuguese and Spanish America, determined by the Santo Ildefonso Treaty (1777). In this historical context of disputes about the possession and exploration of the american territory, the service of engineers, mathematicians and astronomers was essential for the construction of military buildings that were strategic to the occupation and the gathering of informations that were employed in the diplomatic negotiations concerning disputed regions, above all through cartography. From the study about the expedition through Rio Branco performed by the third division unit of the demarcations and the comparative analysis of maps, diaries and letters, I intend to carry on an integrated take on this voyage. I seek to understand how those engineers and astronomers promoted their diligence and honor through their service, the establishment of relationships with local authorities and, mainly, the production of those documents; seeking their insertion in a bureaucratic plot motivated by the acquisition of “merces” and benefits that highlight the metropolitan interest in the colonial space and the exercise of power in this Old Regime society.

Keywords: Astronomers, demarcation commissions, engineers, merces, Portuguese America.
The Santo Ildefonso’s Frontiers: Delineations of Value in the Old Regime
Villela Pereira, Guilherme
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