Abstract: This article presents the theoretical foundations of the concept of constituent power in the works of Sieyès and Schmitt and analyses some contemporary approaches to this idea. These are organized in three different strands: one that deploys the concept in order to justify existing constitutional orders; a second one which sees it as relevant for articulating and proposing radical constitutional change; and a third that aims to suppress the concept from constitutional theory altogether, as it sees it as superfluous. The article argues that the first approach is inadequate because, although it employs the concept of constituent power, it lets other ideas (usually consent and acceptance, but sometimes democratic procedures) do the heavy normative work of justifying the constitution. Furthermore, it may obscure the real sources of legitimacy of a constitutional order. It further argues that the third approach has a democratic deficit and faces difficulties when it tries to grapple with the phenomenon of future constitutional change. It, however, contains an important idea, namely, that the legitimacy of a constitution may not depend entirely on the procedures used to adopt it. I argue that the second approach is the most adequate conceptualisation of constituent power as it is able to overcome the problems of the other two and incorporate some of their insights. It helps us to articulate and propose future constitutional change but recognises that the constitution-making process is not all that matters. It may help political actors to critically shape their demands and is also able to deal with the question of the legitimacy of existing constitutions, conceptualising this as parasitic on futureoriented constituent proposals.

Keywords: Constituent power, legitimacy, popular sovereignty, democracy, rule of law, legality.
Contemporary Approaches to Constituent Power: A Critical Survey
Nochang Heck, Leonardo
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Abstract: Hydrogels are colloidal molecules that are made with polymer matrices and swollen by water. With the increasing global interest in more eco-friendly materials and the need to adopt more green chemistry ideals, natural polymers are a topic of interest for research. Hydrogels made with natural polymer are normally used in biomedicine because of their excellent qualities such as biocompatibility, non cytotoxicity and biodegradability, although they present poor mechanical strength as one of the biggest disadvantages. In this paper it is shown some of the most used natural polymers for hydrogel and their uses in medicine. It is also mentioned how they are normally used as hybrid hydrogels, being able to present even better qualities such as higher mechanical strength. Lastly, it is mentioned about how drug delivery and wound dressing systems work and some examples with the use of the natural polymer in their hydrogel matrices are shown. Despite having excellent qualities for use in medicine, outside of the wound dressing area it is hard and unlikely to see the use of only natural origin polymers as a hydrogel matrix, but their use in hybrid hydrogel matrices present a good future, with the increasing studies each year.

Keywords: Hydrogel, natural origin, drug delivery, wound dressing, biomedicine.
The Future of Natural Origin Hydrogels in Drug Delivery and Wound Dressing Systems
Nunes Jung, Júlia
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Abstract: Relations between Russia and the western powers can still be defined in a logic of opposition and, sometimes, pragmatic cooperation, as in the past times of the Cold War. In this setting, we see States defining their futures oscillating between one or other hegemonic power, trying to seek a position of autonomy to better preserve their interests. This brief analysis aims to interpret and delineate the position of Serbia in this context. By examining how this country, which claims to be a close friend of Russia, has acted as a player of great importance to Vladimir Putin in the Balkans, we will see in what directions Serbia can go in the future. Through a rapid journey in the past thirty years up to the present moment, the quintessence of this paper is to put the following question: What is going to be Serbia's stance concerning the present Russia's foreign policy towards Europe, and how is this going to influence the ongoing Serbian procedure to integrate the European Union?

Keywords: Serbia, EU's enlargement, Russia's foreign policy, Balkans
Serbia: A Pragmatic Performance Between Russia and the European Union?
Oliveira, Patrick da Anunciaçăo
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Abstract: Contemporaneusly there is an mainstream political discourse in political and economical discussions that bases itself mainly on a supposed dichotomy between Market and State, both intrepretred as separate opposites that should not be coordinated: that is the free-market ideal. This article is focused on demonstrating different critical interpretations of the Market-State relations and its implications on material reality. The method utilized is the use
of literature review followed by analysis of divergent critical theories about this same topic. We conclude that literature shows a range of relations that show an inherent link between State and Market that should demonstrate the mainstream discourse of dichotomy as false.

Keywords: Imperialism, Capitalism, State-market relations.
The False Market-State Dichotomy in Capitalist Development
Oliveira Martins da Silva, Mateus
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The challenge to competition authorities presented by digital markets is the combination of some characteristics present in this specific market. The article explores how the characteristics of digital market present a challenge to the antitrust enforcement. Among the decision made by competition authorities worldwide, the Google Shopping Case demonstrated to be present in more than one jurisdiction, due to it, the present work intends to analyze the influence to the antitrust of the Google Shopping case in Brazil - that was judge by Administrative Council for Economic Defense - and Google Shopping case in Europe. Furthermore, a comparative between the two decision is development to prove the importance of Google Shopping case in each jurisdiction and how the competition authorities had different position towards Google alleged conducts.

Keywords: Digital Platforms, Google Shopping, Brazil, Europe, Antitrust.
An Overview of Google Shopping Case in Brazil and Europe Union
Paiva Alves, Malu
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Abstract: This paper conducts a brief contextualization of the tradition of landscape painting, mainly in western art, towards the rupture with its notion of “panoramic view”, in which the observer is detached from the context of the landscape, emphasizing contemporary artworks in which the body takes on a position of protagonist. To illustrate this change, we searched the collection of the São Paulo Museum of Modern Art, in Brazil, and chose three artworks, all of which suggest bodily involvement with landscape: André Cypriano’s photo Pai & filho [Father & Son], from the series Rocinha Project (1999-2002); Sandra Cinto’s photo Untitled (1997); and Sara Ramo’s video Oceano possível [Possible Ocean] (2002).

Keywords: History of Art, landscape painting, body, São Paulo Museum of Modern Art.
A Contemporary Approach to Landscape: Artworks from the São Paulo Museum of Modern Art’s collection
Palucci Marziale, Nicole
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Abstract: For about three centuries, Brazil was the country responsible for kidnapping the largest contingent of African people to be enslaved. Slavery left indelible marks on the country's history and, even after its formal end, continued to permeate social relations and the dynamics of social inequality. Despite this, a farce prevailed as a national identity and, for itself and for the world, Brazil sold the image of being a racial paradise. This process goes back to the name of Gilberto Freyre, author whose work was fundamental for the propagation of this fallacy. Several authors, especially from the 1950s onwards, questioned him and unmasked the true face of a profoundly racist society. In this brief article, I will bring the pioneering and fundamental contribution of the sociologist Floresntan Fernandes. Invited by Roger Bastide, Fernandes produced a revolutionary study of the country's racial dynamics and theoretically denounced Brazilian racial democracy as a myth.

Keywords: Brazil; Racial Democracy; Racism; Black Movement.
Racial Democracy in Brazil: Construction and Denunciation of the Myth
Pequeno Soares, Anita Maria
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Abstract: From the goal of maintaining the service life of a structure comes the need to determine the condition of the structure in situ and then plan an appropriate intervention. Especially when working with timber on historical buildings, all care must be taken in order to obtain proper data about its state, because the aim is not only the repair of the structure itself, but also the preservation of the history it carries with it. Having this in mind, this paper focuses
on the literature review on how to assess the structures of ancient and historical buildings made out of timber, the most common methods for determining structural integrity in situ, focusing on non-destructive testing (NDT), interventions that could be useful and the importance of each method. There is a great variety of species of timber with different properties such as density, strength, water absorption, etc., which makes it important to determine them as well as the type of wood which requires testing beyond mere visual inspection. It is noted that the solution proposed in each case must consider aspects such as the load configuration and ductility of the original structure so the intervention doesn’t change said aspects and, consequently, the global behaviour of the system. The substitution of members should always be avoided, and only considered in a situation that has no other solutions, since it compromises the aesthetics and historical values of the building.

Keywords: Assessment, Cultural Heritage, Historical Buildings, Intervention, Non-destructive Testing, Timber Structure.
Review on the Assessment and Repair of Cultural Heritage Timber Structures
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Pereira Andrade, Gabriel
Abstract: Human activities and the burning of fossil fuels to meet the planet's energy demands have triggered a growing emission of carbon dioxide (CO2), one of the main causes of the greenhouse effect today. Searching for ways to reduce CO2 emission or mechanisms that reduce its concentration in the atmosphere has been a challenge for scientists in recent decades. A path that is quite promising is the use of solar radiation to convert CO2 into high value-added products, through photocatalysis processes, in which the reduction of gas and the oxidation of reducing agents such as water occur. The application of inorganic semiconductors as photocatalysts in CO2 reduction processes has been extensively studied due to the economic viability that these materials present, in addition to the thermodynamic properties that favor photocatalysis processes. This study focused on understanding the basic principles of photocatalysis and the application of inorganic semiconductors such as sulfides, metal oxides, nitrides and oxynitrides in photocatalysis reactions, giving special attention to photocatalytic CO2 reduction systems based on titania (TiO2), an oxide metallic that presents great prominence due to its structure, chemical and thermodynamic properties. A brief historical summary of highly relevant studies using TiO2 in photocatalysis processes is presented, confirming its potential and outlining future perspectives for studies of photocatalytic reduction of CO2.

Keywords: Greenhouse effect, Principle of photocatalysis, Photocatalytic conversion of CO2, Inorganic semiconductors, TiO2-based catalytic systems.
Inorganic Semiconductors as Catalysts in the CO2 Photoreduction Reaction: A Review
Pereira Brasil, Marcelo
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Abstract: This article aims to analyze the bloodfeud that occurred between the families of “senhores de engenho” Pires and Camargo during the years 1640-1651, in the captaincy of São Vicente, in colonial Brazil, and to compare it with the cases of Feud and Vengeance that occurred in Medieval Europe. This “Private War” was one of the most famous in colonial Brazil, as it brings a Shakespearean memory of the rivalry between the Capulet and Montague.

Keywords: Vengeance, Feud, Senhor de Engenho, Blood Feud, Colonial.
Pires Against Camargo: Feud and Vengeance in Colonial Brazil
Pereira da Silva, Brendon Lucas
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Abstract: In this article it is presented an overview of the literature regarding the topic of Controlled Environment Agriculture (CEA) and its shifting from open-field to indoors applications. The efforts to make agriculture, in all of its steps, more efficient combined with the technological advancement of the last decades led us to a situation where not only the monitoring and control of several aspects of cultivation is possible, but it can be achieved on a small scale with low-cost solutions. This increased the technological access of microcontrollers, such as Arduino and Raspberry Pi, which allowed the development for academy research prototyping and emerging of novel concepts, such as smart greenhouses. With that, this literature review shows some of the recent works done by researchers, representing the possibilities of main applications in precision agriculture. The main goal is highlighting important aspects of using the mentioned technological platforms as a way of showing their relevance, and then provide further explanation on how these studies empowered the transition from field to indoors. Finally, it is concluded that technological advance has made possible the reliable control of different environments and made more accessible the research of CEA. But, on the other hand, there is still a lack of incentives for students and universities studying and solving problems to provide even more innovations regarding the field.

Keywords: Precision agriculture, Agriculture 4.0, Smart greenhouses, Microcontrollers.
A Review About the Transition of CEA’s from the Field to Indoors
Poiatto, Maycon
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Abstract: This review paper aims to sum up Günther Schlee’s main considerations about theories of ethnic conflicts. The interest in reviewing this topic is related to the author’s main academic ambitions to research the use of ethnicity as an argument for state violence in several regions. The paper is therefore divided into 4 topics. Firstly, an introduction about Günther Schlee and his work. Secondly, a discussion about the arguments used to defend ethnicity as the main cause of ethnic conflicts. This arguments are divided by Schlee into six main points: cultural differences/ethnicities are the cause of ethnic conflicts; the clash of different cultures reflects ancient oppositions; ethnicity is universal; ethnicity is ascriptive; a people is a community of shared descent; ethnic groups are territorial. Thirdly, an overview of Schlee’s theoretical frame to tackle the subject of ethnic conflicts and the different levels of analysis (A, B, and C), which considers: A) the semantic fields of identity concepts; B) the politics of inclusion and exclusion; C) The economics of group size and social position. Finally, combining the analysis with another review article about Günther Schlee’s work, written by Aleksandar Bošković and Suzana Ignjatovic´, some general conclusions are made about the analytical possibilities brought up by the book.

Keywords: Ethnic Conflicts, Ethnicity, Conflict Theory, Identity, Günther Schlee.
An Overview of Günther Schlee’s Theory on ‘Ethnic Conflicts’
Pussieldi Moratelli, Luísa
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Abstract: During COVID-19 pandemic, protective measures were taken around the world, such as isolation at home and mandatory wear of face masks. Consequently, common habits of using cosmetics products have changed. People were afraid of getting infected, increasing the use of cleaning products, and some problems related to face masks were noticed by consumers. Furthermore, with the stores’ closure, the brands had to find new channel sales. So, this study aims to analyze the impact of the spread of the pandemic in the perception and market of cosmetic products. This study is a literature review and a narrative review was adopted. The results have shown a positive effect in cleansing and skincare products, in which the responders stated an improvement of skin appearance when they were following a full face care routine. But the same was not detected in the wear of makeup. Moreover, with store closing and fear of getting infected by the virus, the frequency of visits to physical stores decreased and online shopping expanded after the outbreak. Hence, without the touch experience, people spent more time looking for reviews on the Internet and found out people that just didn’t share their opinion about products but also about their lives. As a consequence, consumers started to trust more on these digital influencers. Therefore, COVID-19 has indeed changed consumers’ preference of cosmetics, and, as some people intend to maintain some habits acquired during the pandemic, the companies need to be aware of the development of new technologies that attend to the new requirements. Moreover, the brands had also to adapt to new ways of sales and marketing to continue to deliver everyone.

Keywords: Skincare, makeup, maskne, online shopping, digital marketing.
Literature Review: How COVID-19 Pandemic Has Affected Perception of Cosmetics Products
Queiroz Rabelo, Cecília
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Abstract: Due to the scarcity of natural resources that meet the minimum criteria for paving, new economical and sustainable alternatives are sought in the sector. As a result, the usage of byproducts such as steel slags has increased considerably during the last few years. These materials can be used for soil stabilization; a process that presents itself either in mechanical or chemical processes. Recent works have shown that the steel slag originated from the Kambara reactor (KR slag), a byproduct for paving applications used to improve the soil characteristics, and is showing promising results. Given the possibility of using KR slag in many paving solutions, this research paper aims at presenting and analyzing the behavior of a stabilized soil with KR slag based on the results obtained so far. The most recent work in the field showed that the slag improves the resilient modulus of the natural soil studied, although the resulting mixture still shows a granular behavior with low rigidity, classifying it as a mechanically stabilized material.

Keywords: Paving, KR slag, Soil stabilization, Resilient modulus.
Characterization of Stabilized Soil With KR Slag Through Determining the Stabilization Process
Madeira Bueno, Isabella
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Abstract: Different from western military doctrine, the Russian concept of cyberwarfare is intrinsically related to Information Warfare. Instead of cyber operations being a complement to kinetic operations, such as disrupting enemy infrastructure, Russia defines them as a subset of information warfare, and thus, as a soft power non-kinetic way to influence other countries. This has caused western analysts to misinterpret the objective and successes of past Russian solely on tactical gains. This paper aims to explain the concept of cyber warfare from the Russian perspective, its evolutions from 2007 until 2022, and what are the perspectives for the future of cyberwarfare.

Keywords: Cybersecurity, Cyberwarfare, Cyber Attack, Information Warfare, Ukraine, Russia.
Reassessing Russian Cyberwarfare and Information Warfare (2007-2022)
Malta Purim, Andreis Gustavo
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Abstract: Systematic literature reviews are a rigorous, transparent and reliable method for different science fields, including Nutrition. However, in face of the age of big data, developing rigorous systematic reviews can become more and more challenging for researchers. To address these issue, artificial inteligence (AI) tools have been proposed and incorporated into scientific research. Thus, the objective of this study is to conduct a literature review on the use AI tools in systematic reviews developed in the field of Nutrition. The search in the 3 databases retrieved a total of 45 studies, refined into 4 publications dated from 2015 to 2021, all from global North. The AI tools applied showed some variety, although the use of text mining, usually associated with other techniques and processes, was remarkable. The research questions also showed some homogeneity, wih the central theme being the relationships between dietary aspects and the etiology of diseases. Its good coverage of documents available on-line, the fact that these tools represent a somewhat different unit of the field and enrich the experts’ conceptualization, as well as the outstanding feature of benefiting from transdisciplinary work are pointed out by the authors of the reviewed studies as advantages of AI tools. This brief review has shown that, although there is high potential and benefits for the use of AI tools in systematic reviews in the field of Nutrition, its realization is still quite incipient.

Keywords: Systematic reviews, Nutrition Science, artificial intelligence,
Systematic Reviews in Nutrition Using Artificial Intelligence Tools: A Brief Review
Marques Nunes Galbes, Nadine
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Abstract: This paper has the objective to analyse the presence of Human Rights issues in the cases of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea. The adopted methodology was the case law analysis, through the search of keywords related to Human Rights in the document search engine of the tribunal. In the 6 cases and 16 separate opinions which had a substantial presence of Human Rights issues were mainly connected with the protection of due process of law in the context of imprisonment of crew and seizure of vessels within the obligation of prompt release enshrined in the United Nations Convention on the law of the sea. Furthermore, several cases of the International Court of Justice were used as a basis for the judgments on the matter of Human Rights. Specifically, even some of the judges recognize that the tribunal established an important long-standing tradition on the considerations of humanity, however, there is a need for further development and deeper approach on the protection of human rights at sea and other important circumstances such as the protection of individual liberties and the jurisdictional issues.

Keywords: Human Rights, International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS), Considerations of Humanity, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR).
Human Rights in the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea
Martins Anawate, Felipe
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Abstract: The transfer function describing a power converter is a fundamental tool throughout the design and control of converters in closed loop, as seen in the voltage and average current control techniques. Therefore, this paper aims at presenting the small signal averaged space-state modeling of a DC-DC SEPIC-Zeta converter in continuous conduction mode. The resulting model can provide responses on par with precise computer simulations, making it possible to be used for designing controllers. A mathematical analysis is shown, upon which it is possible to obtain simulation results that validate the theoretical assumptions.

Keywords: Integrated converters, Control systems, non-isolated DC-DC converters.
Averaged Space-State Modeling and Simulation of a DC-DC Sepic-Zeta Converter
Martins Damasceno, Klaus Malone
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Abstract: This article provides an overview of the use of various types of amalgam electrodes for monitoring of organic compound described in papers published since 2011. Amalgam electrodes are a popular alternative to toxic liquid mercury electrodes in electroanalytical chemistry. These electrodes are made by forming an amalgam between metal and liquid mercury, and offer advantages such as a wide range of potential windows, low background currents, and high sensitivity. This article discusses the different types of amalgam electrodes, including metal solid amalgam electrodes, paste amalgam electrodes, and modifications of amalgam electrodes. The focus is on the use of these electrodes for the determination of organic compounds, which has various applications in environmental monitoring, pharmaceutical analysis, food and beverage analysis, and biomedical research. The studies demonstrated that Metal solid amalgam electrodes (MeSAEs) are promising alternatives to the hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) for electrochemical measurements.

Keywords: Voltammetry, electroanalysis, amalgam electrodes, silver amalgam, organic compounds.
The Use of Amalgam Electrodes for Monitoring of Organic Compounds
Martins Marques Filho, Fábio
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Abstract: Amid the furor caused by the effects of the Protestant Reform and the Counter-Reform, Amsterdam in the Modern Period, driven by economic progress and its conditions of freedom for the population made possible by the accumulation of wealth, will enable the arrival of several Portuguese Jews who were persecuted by the Inquisition. These Jews were mostly merchants and had a lot of relevance in overseas negotiations, that is, they collaborated for the progress of the nation they lived in, but even so, they suffered from anti-Semitic persecution, at a time of centralization of powers in the Iberian Peninsula, the that will provoke a huge diaspora of these Sephardic Jews all over the world. In Amsterdam, they will find conditions to live under a certain religious tolerance, due to their Calvinist thinking, thus benefiting not only religiously, but also economically, as they could carry out their activities without restrictions. The important Dutch painter Rembrandt lived in the same neighborhood as the Jews in that city, Breedrestraat, which allowed him to have a unique view of them, being so close to their daily lives, many of them being his customers. He portrayed them without the prejudice characteristic of the time, faithfully portraying Jewish symbology.

Keywords: Rembrandt, Amsterdam, Inquisition, Portuguese Jews, Religious Tolerance
The Representation of the Jewish Culture in Amsterdam in the oeuvre of Rembrandt
Martins Veras, Luiza
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Abstract: The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased in recent decades and has become a serious public health problem, as overweight and obesity are major risk factors for non-communicable chronic diseases. One of the main causes for this scenario is unhealthy diets with high consumption of foods rich in critical nutrients for health. In order to assist consumers in making healthier food choices, many countries have implemented Front-of-Pack Nutritional Labeling (FOPL), which provides easily understandable graphical information about the nutritional quality of the product. Few studies have assessed the effect of FOPL on the food choices of parents and children. The objective of this study was to conduct a literature review to evaluate the research conducted so far on the influence of FOPL on the purchasing process of parents and children. The results reveal a greater complexity than anticipated with the implementation of FOPL, as warnings had limited impact on parents and children when other associated factors were present.

Keywords: Front-of-pack, childhood, children, parents, behavior, nutrition, nutrition labeling.
The Influence of Front-of-Pack Nutritional Labeling and Its Limitations on the Food Choices Process of Parents and Children
Mattos Carreiro Monnerat, Caroline
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Abstract: Online games have become increasingly popular worldwide, with more than a third of the world's population being gamers, and this number is expected to continue growing. The effects of electronic gaming have been studied for many years, but there is currently greater interest in this market due to the influence of video games on the brain and their potential alterations. Cognition can be affected by video games, including attentional abilities, working memory, and perception. Understanding these effects is important, as video games can be used as a therapeutic approach. However, there is a growing concern about the impact of video gameplay on the mesolimbic pathway, also known as the reward system, which is a dopaminergic pathway that mediates the processing of rewards and the brain's association of different stimuli with a positive or desirable outcome. Brain imaging studies are crucial when investigating morphological changes in the brain. Several studies have used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the effects of video games. Changes in gray matter, cerebral blood flow and ventral striatum are the major findings addressed in fMRI studies, and interestingly these changes are related to the reward system. It is important to understand how video games affect the reward system and how they can be used as a therapeutic approach. Understanding these effects is crucial, especially in relation to possible online and pathological gaming addictions, and may help develop strategies to prevent and treat these disorders.

Keywords: Video games, online gaming, reward system, dopamine transmission, neuroscience, addiction, substance use, drug abuse.
Video Games, Reward System and Addictive Behavior: A Critical Review
Matutino Santos, Petala
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Abstract: Pertussis is a respiratory infection caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. Which the introduction of pertussis vaccines in the 1990s in Brazil, there was a clear reduction in the incidence rate, from 10.6/100 thousand inhabitants to 0.32/100 thousand inhabitants in 2010. However, surveillance was intensified with the increase in cases between 2011 and 2014. The database of the Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN) was used to analyse the pertussis historical series between the years 2007 and 2018 in Brazil. The study included all confirmed cases and investigated the incidence rate per 100,000 inhabitants in relation to gender, age, and region variables. The joinpoint regression was used for trend analysis. The annual percentage change (APC) and the average annual percentage change (AAPC) was calculated. The significance level used was 5%. During the period from 2007 to 2018, 36075 cases of whooping cough were recorded in Brazil, 60.9% of which were in babies under 1 year of age Individuals between 5 and 14 years old also showed an increase in the rate, although much smaller when compared to younger children. From the age of 15, there was no increase in the incidence of pertussis over the analysed period. The female gender corresponded to 55.3% of the cases We observe an increase in the incidence rate of pertussis from the year 2011 in both genders. As of 2014, there is a drop in the rate. The most affected regions were the Southeast (42%), the Northeast (24%) and the South (20%). The Midwest (7%) and North (7%) regions were the least affected. There was a period of growth in the number of cases in Brazil between 2007 (0.46 cases/100,000 inhab) and 2014 (4.19 cases/100,000 inhab), with an APC of 34.4 (CI95% = (4.8; 72.4)), followed by a stationary period. This behaviour was also observed in the Northeast and Southeast regions. As for age, the rise and fall behaviour was also observed in the range from 0 to 5 years, 5 to 9 years and in adults, and the change in the rate was observed first in 2013 with children under 5 years of age and in 2014 at other ages. In the age groups of 10 to 14 years, 15 to 19 years, and elderly there is a progressive increase in APC of 16.9(CI95% = (-0.8;37.8)), 13.1 CI95% = (-7.5;38.3)) and 10.6(CI95% = (2.1;19.8)), respectively. The present study concludes that the period from 2007 to 2014 was marked by the increase in the number of pertussis cases in Brazil, including in the Southeast and Northeast regions. Such behaviour was also observed in the variables sex and age.

Keywords: Pertussis, Brazil, Jointpoint regression, Time series
Joinpoint Regression Analysis of Pertussis Cases in Brazil from 2007 to 2018
Maurer Costa, Beatriz
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Abstract: High pressure die casting (HPDC) is a fast-paced manufacturing process that allows the production of high-quality parts. Besides the quality, the cast shows good dimensional precision and a small dependency on post-processing. Many automotive companies are migrating to this process to manufacture high complexity geometry components and avoid assembling several smaller parts. By doing it, these companies are reducing the total weight of the vehicle and, as a consequence, making their products greener. Notwithstanding, the production cost is still a challenge for the broad implementation of this technique. Many are the problems that raise the costs regarding HPDC. One of the price components is die maintenance. These dies are exposed to several kinds of wear, and as the surface is worn the cast quality decreases. This review aims to show the HPDC technology and corrosion/soldering wear.

Keywords: High Pressure Die Casting, Wear, Die Soldering, Corrosion.
Review of Corrosion and Soldering for High Pressure Die Casting
Mayer, Andre Renan
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Abstract: The present article analyzes the effectiveness of democratic conditionality in Mercosur and the European Union. All regional integration organizations need their member states to have political and economic stability in order to function properly. Democratic regimes usually guarantee such stability, leading the European Union and Mercosur to adopt measures to safeguard democracy. By drawing comparisons between the organizations’ democratic criteria, the article evaluates how their differences affect the protection of democracy within member states. Factors like historical process, level of integration, and economic and political attributes influence the outcomes of democratic conditionality. Therefore, the article considers the origins and characteristics of both organizations, their democratic conditionality rules, and the application of such rules. The research was conducted via inductive reasoning and the study of legal documents and doctrine. Results indicate that the European Union and Mercosur have vague standards about preserving democracy, which would need to be further specified. Thus, that lack of definition has caused the European Union to make irregular choices on accession procedures. Equally, it has allowed the governments of Mercosur countries to interpret the political criteria according to their domestic interests. However, because of its greater political integration, the European Union would require a more robust model of democratic conditionality than Mercosur.

Keywords: Mercosur. European Union. Democracy.
The Effectiveness of Democratic Conditionality in Mercosur and the European Union
Medeiros Barbieri dos Santos, Mariana
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Abstract: All over the planet, there are many contaminated areas, which has become a highly significant environmental problem due to the toxic effects produced, affecting the entire ecosystem and the surrounding life, including human beings. One of the forms of contamination found is by organochlorines, which comprise among others the Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), compounds that represent a great threat due to their lipophilic character, causing the phenomena of bioaccumulation and biomagnification. Phytoremediation, which involves the use of plants to remove pollutants from the soil, emerges as a very promising technique because plants can absorb and metabolize these toxic compounds, transforming them into less harmful or even inert forms. To better understand how phytoremediation can be applied in the remediation of organochlorines, a literature review was conducted, evaluating the application methods, advantages, disadvantages, and associated costs, as well as the main species recommended for chemical groups such as hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Based on these data, it has been found that phytoremediation is ideal for the remediation of organochlorine compounds, being relatively inexpensive and non-invasive, which does not cause damage to soil and does not require large amounts of energy. Through it, it is possible to plan and implement more effective and tailored strategies for specific contaminated areas. It is hoped that this study will provide valuable information for researchers and professionals working in the field of environmental remediation, encouraging production of new studies on the subject, especially regarding the search for native species, and for the public in general, increasing awareness about the importance of protecting the environment.

Keywords: Contamination, phytoremediation, pesticides, organochlorines, remediation.
Phytoremediation of Contaminated Areas By Organochlorines: A Review
Medeiros de Camargo, Ana Carolina
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Abstract: The trophic performance of Cnidaria species is an issue for several approaches, especially in species of the Medusozoa clade. However, the variation of eating habits in different regions and their subsequent characterization in food chains are practically non-existent. Due to the scarcity of studies focusing on the feeding behaviour of anthozoans, mainly of tropical species, the dietary and behavioral characteristics of the trophic ecology of the group, which are fundamental for their development, reproduction and survival, are poorly understood. In this study, therefore, research on the feeding behavior in Anthozoa was analyzed in order to gather important background information on the ecology and trophic performance of the group. This research is also based on an ongoing undergraduate project that focuses on comparing the trophic activity of four species of sea anemones using morphological and DNA analyses, which may help fill gaps that need clarification.

Keywords: Trophic ecology, anthozoans, feeding behaviour.
Trophic activity of Sea Anemones (Cnidaria; Actiniaria)
Melo Molina, Júlia
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Abstract: Springs carry out an important role in structures, machines, engines and vehicles, the vehicle suspension is modelled like a mass spring damper system it is fundamental in vehicle projects because the suspension is responsible to absorb the hits of the contact with the ground, so a spring at the suspension is so important for stability and comfort to the driver. The spring used in a car’s suspension is of kind helical compression because it absorbs energy when it is compressed or extended. Due to a lot of application of springs, there are tables with many materials, where each material is indicated impact loads, fatigue loads, static loads and high temperature, for example, the spring design needs the correct material, otherwise, the spring will fail, besides is necessary to access tables to get standard value, because is cheaper to use standard values of parameters, otherwise is necessary to manufacture an unique part for the design. Is necessary to define spring index, Wahl factor (Kw), and transverse shear factor (Ks), these parameters are essential to design a spring and were used an iterative process to get the wire diameter of the spring. Therefore, is necessary to consult tables to choose the correct material and to choose the correct standard wire diameter, besides is necessary to use an iterative method to get the wire diameter.

Keywords: Spring stability, dynamic load, helical compression spring, stiffness, iterative method.
Spring Design for a Vehicle Suspension
Melo Paula, Lucas Matheus
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Abstract: After the Second World War, the use of pesticides, substances used to combat pests that attack agricultural crops, became increasingly used because they helped increase productivity over the years. However, their intense use turned out to be dangerous and offensive, both to the environment and to mankind. In an attempt to put an end to areas that have been used pesticides in larger quantities than indicated, studies tend to the use of decomposing agents, such as bacteria and fungi, which have the enzymatic capacity of remediation, helping to remove or detoxify some pesticides. Among bacteria, the major bacterial genera include: Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Moraxalla, Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, Paracoccus, Aerobacter, Alkaligens, Burkholderia and Sphingomonas. Fungi include the genera Fusarium, Aspergilus niger, Penicillium, Lentinulaedodes, Lecanicillium and Oxysporum. Along with this, we can use the bioremediation in flooded crops that contributes effectively so that this production system does not contaminate soil and water resources. The studies on the use of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi and acidiomicrtos have been developed since the last century and currently has already been established the bioremediation of intoxicated areas with efficient pesticides and efficient molecules, such as: pesticides 2,4-D, parathion, carbofuran, phenol, benzene, toluene, xylene and others.

Keywords: Pesticides, bacterial, fungi, biodegradation, bioremediation.
Bacteria and Fungi in Pesticide Degradation: A Review
Mesas Caldeira, Giovana
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Abstract: This study focuses on understanding Yemen’s crisis under two well-known liberal theories in the International Relations field: Interdependence and Neoliberal Institutionalism. The research aims to explain and analyze the country’s delicate situation relying on the work of Joseph Nye and Robert Keohane, formulated during the 1970s when the International System needed an alternative to Realism. Both points of view will be demonstrated and discussed, in this case, the ideas that best relate to each event will be explained before, using the author's opinion and the critical knowledge developed during the academic background and when this paper was being written. This matter was chosen due to its importance, considering that this is the worst humanitarian crisis in the world, according to The United Nations. Besides, the many actors involved in the conflict (which are not only States), make this a challenging study since it’s more related to neoliberal theories, collaborating to the aim of the research.

Keywords: Yemen Crisis, Yemen Humanitarian Conflict, Middle East, International Relations Theory, Interdependence, Neoliberal Institutionalism.
Understanding Yemen’s Crisis: A Perspective from the Interdependence and Neoliberal Institutionalism Theories
Michels Langer, Gustavo
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Abstract: Ultrasound is a safe and portable tool that allows physicians to visualize anatomical structures and diagnose pathologies. Its use has expanded to multiple medical specialties, and even non-radiologist physicians are increasingly employing it for diagnosis and guidance. These data demonstrate the importance, for physicians, of learning how to handle and understand the equipment, thus making the teaching of ultrasound essential in medical schools. This paper aims to review the literature for evidence of the importance of an ultrasonography curriculum in medical schools, how medical students are learning ultrasound and POCUS worldwide and how it can be applied in medical schools in Brazil. It was found that echography is becoming an essential part of medical education, especially in developed countries, as it is qualified equipment for accurate diagnoses and monitoring of various diseases and health conditions. The lack of a standardized ultrasound training program in Brazilian medical schools is noted, and this review demonstrates potential methods for implementing such a program. Examples of successful ultrasound curricula in other countries are presented, including peer mentoring and online training. The benefits of integrating ultrasound into medical school curricula are highlighted, including improved diagnosis and therapeutic guidance, as well as enhanced learning opportunities for medical students.

Keywords: Ultrasound, medical students, medical schools.
The advantages and Obstacles of Implementing an Ultrasound Curriculum in Medical Schools: A Brazilian Perspective
Monmany Jobim, Fernanda
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Abstract: This paper is an introduction to the acquisition of a second language for young learners. The main focus is to answer some questions and concerns about the topic raised among teachers and families, through my pedagogical practice. This paper comes out through bibliographic review. The attempt is to have the first approximations, focusing on the general understanding of this wide area, passing through the main aspects that may affect without any claim to covering this issue exhaustively, but rather describing first assimilation and founds. Two of the most remarkable authors of the topic are brought and, as they have different perspectives, this paralleling offers a counterpoint. Skinner discusses behavior aspects, and Chomsky adds the learning dynamics. Next, recent studies which corroborate Chomsky assumptions about predisposition for the human brain to be able to recognize patterns of language, also debating topics just as: what language is and what is the importance for human beings; practical issues of effectiveness of bilingualism and multilingualism, such as exposure time; difference between acquiring a language as an infant or adult; tools for the teachers to rethink the current practices; the importance of the interaction, and context; macro aspects, such as politics and history.

Keywords: Second language acquisition, young learners.
An Introduction to the Acquisition of a Second Language for Young Learners
Monteiro dos Santos, Natalie Regina
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Abstract: This article aims to offer a brief analysis of the historical events surrounding the migratory process in Latin America and the Caribbean, from the arrival of Europeans in the 15th century to today’s scenery, highlighting the problem of selectivity regarding the profile of the desirable and the undesirable immigrant. It is argued that there is a continuity of coloniality as a framework for differentiating immigrants based on race and for establishing anti-migratory policies to this day.

Keywords: Migrations. Latin America. Caribbean.
A Historical Perspective on Migrations in Latin America and the Caribbean
Moraes Cabral, Júlia
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Abstract: This paper reviews pertinent literature about international and domestic environmental law regarding especially protected areas, land use, and land-use change in Brazil. It also identifies and analyzes Brazil’s main legislation on Protected Areas and legal land clearing possibilities, particularly in Legal Amazon. The National System of Conservation Units (SNUC - Law No. 9.985/2000) and the Forest Code (Law 12.651/2012) are studied in relation to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), the Paris Agreement's goals and the country's Nationally Determined Contributions (2016 NDC). We look into the historical process of Legal Amazon occupation and the current state of protection, describing more than12 (twelve) types of protected areas ownership regime, main purpose (conservation, sustainable use, land-use change restrictions in private lands), and possible activities. Complexities, instruments, and fragility of Brazil’s main environmental laws are gathered and described, emphasizing the country's legal strengths to comply with international laws and global objectives to face the climate crisis.

Keywords: Legal Amazon, Protected Areas, Brazilian Forest Code, Land Use, Land Use Change.
Legal Framework on Protected Areas and Land Use Change in Brazil
Moreira Costa, Júlia
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Abstract: The consumption of spices in Brazil is common and even a cultural habit. Due to the subtropical climate of the country and the lack of adequate sanitary measures in the production chain, the risk of spice contamination by toxigenic microfungi is increased. The presence of mycotoxins in food is of concern because even in small amounts, they can trigger acute and chronic diseases. This review summarizes data from 20 references, including papers and academic thesis, concerning the presence of mycotoxins and microfungi in spices commonly consumed in Brazil in the last 10 years. A total of 16 spices, 6 mycotoxins, and 28 classifications of mycotoxin producers are reported, and most of the microfungi found belong to the Aspergillus genus. The Penicillium genus also appears in a great number of references. The most found mycotoxins are Aflatoxins (AFs) and Ochratoxin A (OTA). The difference in the number of references which presented contamination above and below the limits established by the Brazilian legislation was small, indicating that the contamination of spices could represent a food safety issue in Brazil.

Keywords: Aflatoxins, ochratoxins, microfungi, Brazil, spices, contamination.
Review on Mycotoxins in Spices from the Brazilian Market in the Light of the Last Ten Years
Moreto Guaitolini, Yasmin
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Abstract: Background: Patients with Bipolar Disorder (BD) present alternating episodes of depression, mania / hypomania and eutymia. In previous researchs, limonene showed anxiolytic effects and was able to reduce the hyperstimulation and dopaminergic neurotramission induced by psychostimulants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of limonene administration on locomotion and exploration behavior in mice treated with methylphenidate (used for inducing mania in an animal model) using the Behavioral Pattern Monitor (MPC). Methods: Male Swiss mice (n = 75) were split in eight experimental groups. Firstly, saline, limonene or lithium were administered. Then, each mouse received saline or methylphenidate. After drug administration, locomotor and exploratory activity was observed. Data was analyzed by ANOVA followed by Duncan post-hoc test. Values p0.05 were considered significant. Results: Methylphenidate increased locomotory activity of the animals. The limonene-treated group didn´t show statistically significant results. Significant increase of the exploration wasn´t found in animals treated with methylphenidate compared to control group. A significant reduction of the holepokes and climbing was seen in lithium and limonene treated animals. Limitations: Video analysis were not done blindly. Conclusions: Limonene administration didn´t reduce methylphenidate-induced hyperlocomotion. Regarding exploratory activity, a significant reduction was observed in the limonene-treated group (200 mg / kg). However, administration of methylphenidate wasn´t able to the increase the exploratory activity, limiting the validity of the results. Thus, further studies are necessary to evaluate the effect of limonene on exploratory behavior in animal models of mania.

Keywords: Bipolar Disorder, Behavioral Pattern Monitor, Methylphenidate, Limonene.
Evaluation of the Effects of Limonene in a Animal Model of Mania
Mori Santos, Emilly Hanay
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Abstract: In view of the growing energy demand, energy storage systems are indispensable in most of the instances that compose and guide society. In this regard, lithium-ion batteries are one of the most significant forms to supply the energy demand of many applications that depend on the delivery of constant power over prolonged periods. They are a great alternative for small to large-scale applications. It is cognizable that they are electrochemical devices with high energy density and specific energy, and countless advantages for this purpose. Therefore, this paper is a brief literature review with the purpose of discussing and describing the prominence of these batteries in the context of energy storage. To this end, it is outlined from the introductory comments, a brief historical contextualization of the technology of lithium-ion battery, citing the discoveries that led to its recognition in the 2019 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, followed by a basic and general overview of its operating principle, moving on to a mention of its applications in everyday life, and finally addresses a preliminary perspective about what exists in the literature about the future of this technology, such as the so-called post-lithium-ion batteries, and its potential scientific and technological enhancement. From this, the conclusion of the literature review is elaborated given the constructed overview.

Keywords: Lithium-ion batteries, energy storage systems, electrochemical devices.
The Preponderance of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Energy Storage Systems: A Brief Review
Mota Gomes, Mariana
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Abstract: Even with COVID-19 rendering humanity largely unable to relate in the simplest form of face-to-face meetings, an alternative was found in the virtual world, where one could be simultaneously isolated from disease while being connected with people through the Internet. However, this solution has been worrisome as it could play part in accelerating issues related to Modernity, such as uprooting and creating a lack of touch with physical reality. This scenario, which is expected to be further pushed on by the emergence of metaverses and the risk of new pandemics, has created fertile soil for new forms of existing which are more fluid. How do people feel about that and how do they perceive themselves in this process? In order to shed light on this question, a survey was organized and issued on Discord’s servers, which are “places” of text and voice chatting that have significantly grown during the presented context. Although with sample restrictions, such a survey consisted of close-ended answers and provided the picture that virtuality indeed plays a significant role in the formation of memory and identities of the respondent users, which is manifested in their perceived behavior.

Keywords: User experience, Discord, Place, Avatarity, Virtual Reality
Organizing Discord: Survey on Online Spatiality, Identity, and Memory in the Platform
Musketo Gil, Gabriel
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Abstract: This article explores the use of psychological profiling as a tool for identifying and capturing serial killers in Brazilian and Czech jurisdictions. It highlights the importance of psychological profiling in criminal investigations, particularly in understanding the motivations, behaviours, and characteristics of serial killers. However, the use of psychological profiling raises legal and ethical concerns. The article examines the use of psychological profiling in serial killer cases in Brazil and the Czech Republic, focusing on the legal and international law implications of this technique. While profiling has been used to assist in criminal investigations and trials in both countries, the use of profiling evidence in court can be controversial due to subjectivity and interpretation issues. Additionally, the article notes that international law considerations must be taken into account when using psychological profiling, with the United Nations emphasising the need for scientific rigour, objectivity, and protection of the rights of the accused.

Keywords: Psychological profiling, Serial killers, Brazil, Czech Republic, International Law.
Serial Killer Psychological Profiling in Brazil and Czechia: Legal and International Implications
Nogueira Medeiros, Raísa
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Abstract: Surface Urban Heat Island (SUHI) is a phenomenon of urban areas being significantly warmer than their surrounding rural areas due to the built environment and human activities. Local Climate Zones (LCZs) are a recent classification scheme that partitions urban areas into zones based on their physical and functional characteristics, providing more nuanced information about urban environments than traditional land use categories. Machine learning (ML) and remote sensing (RM) techniques have been applied to analyze and model SUHI across LCZs, leveraging large volumes of spatial data such as remote sensing imagery and weather station observations. ML models have shown promising results in predicting SUHI intensities, identifying key LCZ features associated with SUHI, and estimating important variables for a better understanding of the climatic conditions in a given region. These findings can inform urban planning and design strategies aimed at mitigating SUHI effects and promoting sustainable urban environments.

Keywords: Surface urban heat island, machine learning, local climate zones, Landsat 8.
Urban Heat Island: A Statistical Perspective Using Machine Learning for Florianópolis, Brazil
Nehara Moreira, Rodrigo
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Abstract: Epigenetics is an emerging area that studies the extra layer of information on top of the DNA and how it affects gene regulation. This discipline is predicted to be more than 20% of genetics academic importance in 2029 and is required in the Brazilian Nacional Exam of High School (ENEM). This growing attention is due to discussions around environmental and lifestyle impacts on genome and phenotypes, and inheritance. In this way, this observational retrospective study investigated the theme through research on Web of Science, Google Scholar and Scopus, at first using words like “epigenetic”, “school”, “curriculum” and “education” to find literature. And aimed to elaborate on topics of epigenetics to be implemented in Brazilian schools through approaches that possibility students to be more interested in genetics. This article also considers the necessity to qualify teachers better around the theme and defends the demand for didactic books as a helpful complement to in-class education.

Keywords: Biology, epigenetics, secondary curriculum, humanazing pedagogy.
A quick look at Implementing Epigenetics in Brazilian High School Biology Curriculum
Oliveira Rocha, Amanda
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Abstract: The coffee is one of the most consumed industrial products nowadays, it is present in various environments, in various forms and has been consumed by individuals of different age groups, its bean is found in large quantities in Brazil being the fruit of the coffee tree, its industrialization process has several stages, being the roasting the stage of interest to this work. At this stage, the indirect formation of acrylamide occurs through the Milliard process, where substances present in coffee, such as asparagine and saccharides, are heated at temperatures above 120°C, forming acrylamide. In 1994, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified Acrylamide (CAS No. 79-06-1) as a possible human carcinogen (Group 2A), since then studies have been made to understand its formation in food and the effects caused in humans. This work had as main objective to determine acrylamide in coffee samples, however, the use of electroanalytical methods such as cyclic voltammetry (CV), square wave voltammetry (SWV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) were not efficient in the research, one of the hypotheses discussed for such result came from the analysis of the high polarity and low molecular mass of the compound, methods such as Gas Chromatography (GC) or Liquid Chromatography (LC) and Mass Spectrometry (MS) are the most common and appropriate for the identification and determination of acrylamide. The results of the identification tests of acrylamide in solution of tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB)[0,1 mol L-1], using carbon paste electrodes modified with biochar (MCPE), are presented, using CV, DPV and SWV. Analysing the results obtained resulted in the hypothesis that the biochar present in the MCPE absorbed the acrylamide present in solution, hindering the determination of the substance.

Keywords: Acrylamide, Biochar, Modified Carbon Paste Electrode, Coffee, Voltammetry.
Acrylamide Detection Using Electrochemical Analysis. Determination with Biochar Modified Carbon Paste Electrode (McPe)
Oliveira Souza, Luara
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Abstract: This paper investigates the cultural significance of black holes and suns as metaphors in continental European literature and art, drawing on theoretical insights from French continental authors such as Jean-François Lyotard and Ray Brassier. Lyotard suggests that black holes signify the ultimate form of the sublime, representing the displacement of humanity and our unease with our place in the cosmos. On the other hand, Brassier views black holes as a consequence of the entropic dissolution of matter, reflecting physical reality's indifference to subjective or teleological significance. The study also presents a curated collection of literary works and artworks that employ black holes and suns as metaphors, examining the emergence of these metaphorical objects and identifying discursive and epistemological shifts in society. Furthermore, this collaborative research project, involving the Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo and the Federal Fluminense University in Brazil, and the Charles University in Prague in the Czech Republic, aims to provide a valuable resource for further academic inquiry.

Keywords: Black Holes; Black Suns; Metaphors; Artwork; Literature; Contemporary Continental Philosophy.
Black Holes: Artistic Metaphors for the Contemporaneity
Ottero Gobetti, Gustavo
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Abstract: The article presents the importance of auditory perception for musicians, as well as the debate about the genetic influence versus training in the acquisition of perfect pitch. The authors explain that hearing is essential for the musical experience, as music is composed of organised sounds, and the musician's skill is closely linked to his perception and affective memory. There are two types of hearing, relative and absolute, the first of which is related to the ability to identify a note by relating it to other notes, and the second allows you to perceive and define each of the notes that reach the ear. Absolute pitch is rare, occurring in 1 in 10,000 people, and is considered a gift that can be innate or acquired over time with practice. The authors also explain that music mobilises almost all regions of the brain and almost all neural subsystems, which makes this activity very complex. In short, the article presents relevant information about auditory perception and absolute pitch, and discusses the relationship between genetics and training in the acquisition of this musical skill.

Keywords: Absolute pitch, Philosophy, Epistemology, Senses, Sound.
Absolute Pitch - Heredity or Practice?
Pacheco Lopes, Gustavo
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Abstract: In this text I present on the Terra Preta in interface with discussions on the Anthropology of Technique. The “Terras Pretas de indio”, as they are also called, have a strong anthropogenic connotation, in comparison with the soils present in the Amazon. The Terras Pretas, if understood from the perspective of space, according to Milton Santos, who understands it as a conjunction of systems of objects and systems of action, we realize that technique is a register in space, and therefore, a link between these dimensions. In this sense, the techno diversity that exploits the floristic potential of the forest and the soil can make it possible to think about the transformations that may have allowed the existence of Terras Pretas and their variations.

Keywords: Amazonian Archaeology; Anthropology of Technique ; Terras Pretas.
Terras Pretas in Technique Interface: Literature Reviews
Pereira de Andrade, Matheus
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Abstract: Biogas technology is a renewable energy with the potential to provide benefits to Sub Saharan Africa in several socioeconomic and environmental aspects, mainly considering all issues associated with the production of energy in this region nowadays. Despite many challenges related to developing the biogas industry locally, this technology has been considered a more sustainable energy source to fight energy poverty, mainly in rural areas. Therefore, this paper investigates the main benefits related to biogas dissemination in Sub-Saharan Africa. Considering the method, it was developed a textual search on ScienceDirect using the keywords “Sub-Saharan Africa”, “Biogas”, “biogas in Sub Saharan Africa”, and “biodigesters in Sub Saharan Africa”, between the years of 2000 to 2022. Afterwards, two main articles were selected to be used as base for the present literature review. Results show that biogas tends to develop the domestic industry, create jobs and technical trainings, reduce external dependence on energy, create quality of life, improve sanitation and food security, promote gender equality, improve farming conditions, reduce erosion, reduce poverty indicators, develop a waste management solution and improve air and water quality.

Keywords: Energy Poverty, Sub-Saharan Africa, Biogas.
Potential of Biogas in Sub-Saharan Africa – An Overview
Pereira Massoto Laranjeiras, Ludmilla
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Abstract: This research paper presents an analysis of different types of 4-quadrant switches topologies for 3 phase rectifiers, namely T-type, NPC-type, and VIENNA-type. The aim of the study is to compare and contrast the performance of these topologies in terms of power output. The analysis is conducted through simulation studies using the PSIM software, which includes modelling and simulation of each topology. The results reveal that each topology has its unique advantages and limitations. Overall, this study contributes to the understanding of different 4-quadrant switches topologies and suitability for different applications

Keywords: 3 phase rectifiers, 4-quadrant switches, electric vehicles (EV), battery chargers.
Analysis Between Different Types of 4-Quadrant Switches Used on EV’s Charger Rectifiers
Peron Metzger, Tiago
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Abstract: There have been many cases of terrorist attacks worldwide. And even though Brazil has a pacifist stance and seems to be a distant reality, Brazil is exposed to the terrorist threat. For this reason, concerning international cooperation in the fight against terrorism, this study aims to identify Brazil's contribution to the fight against international terrorism and present its experience and actions against domestic terrorism. The provided data were obtained through bibliographic research. Considering terrorist attacks around the globe and that Brazil is threatened by it like other countries, the goals were to process the provided data in different platforms; search for terrorism definition; work on a review of the literature to find Brazil's experience with terrorism and its cooperation to fight against it; understand how Brazil deals with terrorism within the scope of its legislation and identify Brazil cooperation at regional and international levels. In addition to its operation in sports events like FIFA's World Cup in 2014 and the Olympics and Paralympics in 2016, Brazil has had experience with homegrown terrorism. Over the past few years, it has also been fighting international terrorism on various platforms. Brazil cooperates at the regional and international levels, and it is becoming a relevant and respected partner in the international community.

Keywords: Brazil, international terrorism, counterterrorism.
Brazilian Contribution in Fighting International Terrorism
Pessoa Faria Dias, Anna Maria
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Abstract: During three months of ethnography inside of Bangu Shopping points that are discussed in this article were well observed and analyzed to understand why and what made Bangu Shopping the place that dialogue with your own neighborhood more than any mall in Rio de Janeiro. Bangu shopping was born in a way different from any other shopping. It was born preserving the history of itself. The methodology used was participant observation to collect qualitative databases of how far and important de Bangu shopping was for its own community, in a meaning of being a shopping not just used to an expensive way or luxury. The article wants to understand and observe that Bangu shopping is as important to the neighborhood as it was to the factory before.

Keywords: Mall, Bangu, popular, neighborhood.
The Factory in the Past and the Bangu Mall in the Present
Pia de Oliveira, Tanita
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Abstract: In the last few decades, the energy demand has increased significantly. In a world where the energy majority comes from fossil fuels, the need for renewable energy sources is tremendous. Among the renewable energy sources, Wave Energy is one of the most promising, however, it is still in the initial stage of its development. This study will make a complete analysis of Wave Energy: From its creation in nature to the existing Wave Energy Converters (WECs), evaluating the different technology's performance and estimating the cost of implementation compared to other energy sources.

Keywords: Wave Energy, Wave Power, Renewable Energy, Technology, Review, Performance, Cost, Economics.
Wave Energy: A Review of Technologies, Performance, and Costs
Queiroz Campos, Pedro
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