Abstract: Due to the scarcity of natural resources that meet the minimum criteria for paving, new economical and sustainable alternatives are sought in the sector. As a result, the usage of byproducts such as steel slags has increased considerably during the last few years. These materials can be used for soil stabilization; a process that presents itself either in mechanical or chemical processes. Recent works have shown that the steel slag originated from the Kambara reactor (KR slag), a byproduct for paving applications used to improve the soil characteristics, and is showing promising results. Given the possibility of using KR slag in many paving solutions, this research paper aims at presenting and analyzing the behavior of a stabilized soil with KR slag based on the results obtained so far. The most recent work in the field showed that the slag improves the resilient modulus of the natural soil studied, although the resulting mixture still shows a granular behavior with low rigidity, classifying it as a mechanically stabilized material.

Keywords: Paving, KR slag, Soil stabilization, Resilient modulus.
Characterization of Stabilized Soil With KR Slag Through Determining the Stabilization Process
Madeira Bueno, Isabella
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Abstract: Different from western military doctrine, the Russian concept of cyberwarfare is intrinsically related to Information Warfare. Instead of cyber operations being a complement to kinetic operations, such as disrupting enemy infrastructure, Russia defines them as a subset of information warfare, and thus, as a soft power non-kinetic way to influence other countries. This has caused western analysts to misinterpret the objective and successes of past Russian solely on tactical gains. This paper aims to explain the concept of cyber warfare from the Russian perspective, its evolutions from 2007 until 2022, and what are the perspectives for the future of cyberwarfare.

Keywords: Cybersecurity, Cyberwarfare, Cyber Attack, Information Warfare, Ukraine, Russia.
Reassessing Russian Cyberwarfare and Information Warfare (2007-2022)
Malta Purim, Andreis Gustavo
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Abstract: Systematic literature reviews are a rigorous, transparent and reliable method for different science fields, including Nutrition. However, in face of the age of big data, developing rigorous systematic reviews can become more and more challenging for researchers. To address these issue, artificial inteligence (AI) tools have been proposed and incorporated into scientific research. Thus, the objective of this study is to conduct a literature review on the use AI tools in systematic reviews developed in the field of Nutrition. The search in the 3 databases retrieved a total of 45 studies, refined into 4 publications dated from 2015 to 2021, all from global North. The AI tools applied showed some variety, although the use of text mining, usually associated with other techniques and processes, was remarkable. The research questions also showed some homogeneity, wih the central theme being the relationships between dietary aspects and the etiology of diseases. Its good coverage of documents available on-line, the fact that these tools represent a somewhat different unit of the field and enrich the experts’ conceptualization, as well as the outstanding feature of benefiting from transdisciplinary work are pointed out by the authors of the reviewed studies as advantages of AI tools. This brief review has shown that, although there is high potential and benefits for the use of AI tools in systematic reviews in the field of Nutrition, its realization is still quite incipient.

Keywords: Systematic reviews, Nutrition Science, artificial intelligence,
Systematic Reviews in Nutrition Using Artificial Intelligence Tools: A Brief Review
Marques Nunes Galbes, Nadine
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Abstract: Amid the furor caused by the effects of the Protestant Reform and the Counter-Reform, Amsterdam in the Modern Period, driven by economic progress and its conditions of freedom for the population made possible by the accumulation of wealth, will enable the arrival of several Portuguese Jews who were persecuted by the Inquisition. These Jews were mostly merchants and had a lot of relevance in overseas negotiations, that is, they collaborated for the progress of the nation they lived in, but even so, they suffered from anti-Semitic persecution, at a time of centralization of powers in the Iberian Peninsula, the that will provoke a huge diaspora of these Sephardic Jews all over the world. In Amsterdam, they will find conditions to live under a certain religious tolerance, due to their Calvinist thinking, thus benefiting not only religiously, but also economically, as they could carry out their activities without restrictions. The important Dutch painter Rembrandt lived in the same neighborhood as the Jews in that city, Breedrestraat, which allowed him to have a unique view of them, being so close to their daily lives, many of them being his customers. He portrayed them without the prejudice characteristic of the time, faithfully portraying Jewish symbology.

Keywords: Rembrandt, Amsterdam, Inquisition, Portuguese Jews, Religious Tolerance
The Representation of the Jewish Culture in Amsterdam in the oeuvre of Rembrandt
Martins Veras, Luiza
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Abstract: Pertussis is a respiratory infection caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. Which the introduction of pertussis vaccines in the 1990s in Brazil, there was a clear reduction in the incidence rate, from 10.6/100 thousand inhabitants to 0.32/100 thousand inhabitants in 2010. However, surveillance was intensified with the increase in cases between 2011 and 2014. The database of the Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN) was used to analyse the pertussis historical series between the years 2007 and 2018 in Brazil. The study included all confirmed cases and investigated the incidence rate per 100,000 inhabitants in relation to gender, age, and region variables. The joinpoint regression was used for trend analysis. The annual percentage change (APC) and the average annual percentage change (AAPC) was calculated. The significance level used was 5%. During the period from 2007 to 2018, 36075 cases of whooping cough were recorded in Brazil, 60.9% of which were in babies under 1 year of age Individuals between 5 and 14 years old also showed an increase in the rate, although much smaller when compared to younger children. From the age of 15, there was no increase in the incidence of pertussis over the analysed period. The female gender corresponded to 55.3% of the cases We observe an increase in the incidence rate of pertussis from the year 2011 in both genders. As of 2014, there is a drop in the rate. The most affected regions were the Southeast (42%), the Northeast (24%) and the South (20%). The Midwest (7%) and North (7%) regions were the least affected. There was a period of growth in the number of cases in Brazil between 2007 (0.46 cases/100,000 inhab) and 2014 (4.19 cases/100,000 inhab), with an APC of 34.4 (CI95% = (4.8; 72.4)), followed by a stationary period. This behaviour was also observed in the Northeast and Southeast regions. As for age, the rise and fall behaviour was also observed in the range from 0 to 5 years, 5 to 9 years and in adults, and the change in the rate was observed first in 2013 with children under 5 years of age and in 2014 at other ages. In the age groups of 10 to 14 years, 15 to 19 years, and elderly there is a progressive increase in APC of 16.9(CI95% = (-0.8;37.8)), 13.1 CI95% = (-7.5;38.3)) and 10.6(CI95% = (2.1;19.8)), respectively. The present study concludes that the period from 2007 to 2014 was marked by the increase in the number of pertussis cases in Brazil, including in the Southeast and Northeast regions. Such behaviour was also observed in the variables sex and age.

Keywords: Pertussis, Brazil, Jointpoint regression, Time series
Joinpoint Regression Analysis of Pertussis Cases in Brazil from 2007 to 2018
Maurer Costa, Beatriz
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Abstract: High pressure die casting (HPDC) is a fast-paced manufacturing process that allows the production of high-quality parts. Besides the quality, the cast shows good dimensional precision and a small dependency on post-processing. Many automotive companies are migrating to this process to manufacture high complexity geometry components and avoid assembling several smaller parts. By doing it, these companies are reducing the total weight of the vehicle and, as a consequence, making their products greener. Notwithstanding, the production cost is still a challenge for the broad implementation of this technique. Many are the problems that raise the costs regarding HPDC. One of the price components is die maintenance. These dies are exposed to several kinds of wear, and as the surface is worn the cast quality decreases. This review aims to show the HPDC technology and corrosion/soldering wear.

Keywords: High Pressure Die Casting, Wear, Die Soldering, Corrosion.
Review of Corrosion and Soldering for High Pressure Die Casting
Mayer, Andre Renan
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Abstract: The present article analyzes the effectiveness of democratic conditionality in Mercosur and the European Union. All regional integration organizations need their member states to have political and economic stability in order to function properly. Democratic regimes usually guarantee such stability, leading the European Union and Mercosur to adopt measures to safeguard democracy. By drawing comparisons between the organizations’ democratic criteria, the article evaluates how their differences affect the protection of democracy within member states. Factors like historical process, level of integration, and economic and political attributes influence the outcomes of democratic conditionality. Therefore, the article considers the origins and characteristics of both organizations, their democratic conditionality rules, and the application of such rules. The research was conducted via inductive reasoning and the study of legal documents and doctrine. Results indicate that the European Union and Mercosur have vague standards about preserving democracy, which would need to be further specified. Thus, that lack of definition has caused the European Union to make irregular choices on accession procedures. Equally, it has allowed the governments of Mercosur countries to interpret the political criteria according to their domestic interests. However, because of its greater political integration, the European Union would require a more robust model of democratic conditionality than Mercosur.

Keywords: Mercosur. European Union. Democracy.
The Effectiveness of Democratic Conditionality in Mercosur and the European Union
Medeiros Barbieri dos Santos, Mariana
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Abstract: The trophic performance of Cnidaria species is an issue for several approaches, especially in species of the Medusozoa clade. However, the variation of eating habits in different regions and their subsequent characterization in food chains are practically non-existent. Due to the scarcity of studies focusing on the feeding behaviour of anthozoans, mainly of tropical species, the dietary and behavioral characteristics of the trophic ecology of the group, which are fundamental for their development, reproduction and survival, are poorly understood. In this study, therefore, research on the feeding behavior in Anthozoa was analyzed in order to gather important background information on the ecology and trophic performance of the group. This research is also based on an ongoing undergraduate project that focuses on comparing the trophic activity of four species of sea anemones using morphological and DNA analyses, which may help fill gaps that need clarification.

Keywords: Trophic ecology, anthozoans, feeding behaviour.
Trophic activity of Sea Anemones (Cnidaria; Actiniaria)
Melo Molina, Júlia
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Abstract: After the Second World War, the use of pesticides, substances used to combat pests that attack agricultural crops, became increasingly used because they helped increase productivity over the years. However, their intense use turned out to be dangerous and offensive, both to the environment and to mankind. In an attempt to put an end to areas that have been used pesticides in larger quantities than indicated, studies tend to the use of decomposing agents, such as bacteria and fungi, which have the enzymatic capacity of remediation, helping to remove or detoxify some pesticides. Among bacteria, the major bacterial genera include: Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Moraxalla, Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, Paracoccus, Aerobacter, Alkaligens, Burkholderia and Sphingomonas. Fungi include the genera Fusarium, Aspergilus niger, Penicillium, Lentinulaedodes, Lecanicillium and Oxysporum. Along with this, we can use the bioremediation in flooded crops that contributes effectively so that this production system does not contaminate soil and water resources. The studies on the use of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi and acidiomicrtos have been developed since the last century and currently has already been established the bioremediation of intoxicated areas with efficient pesticides and efficient molecules, such as: pesticides 2,4-D, parathion, carbofuran, phenol, benzene, toluene, xylene and others.

Keywords: Pesticides, bacterial, fungi, biodegradation, bioremediation.
Bacteria and Fungi in Pesticide Degradation: A Review
Mesas Caldeira, Giovana
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Abstract: This paper is an introduction to the acquisition of a second language for young learners. The main focus is to answer some questions and concerns about the topic raised among teachers and families, through my pedagogical practice. This paper comes out through bibliographic review. The attempt is to have the first approximations, focusing on the general understanding of this wide area, passing through the main aspects that may affect without any claim to covering this issue exhaustively, but rather describing first assimilation and founds. Two of the most remarkable authors of the topic are brought and, as they have different perspectives, this paralleling offers a counterpoint. Skinner discusses behavior aspects, and Chomsky adds the learning dynamics. Next, recent studies which corroborate Chomsky assumptions about predisposition for the human brain to be able to recognize patterns of language, also debating topics just as: what language is and what is the importance for human beings; practical issues of effectiveness of bilingualism and multilingualism, such as exposure time; difference between acquiring a language as an infant or adult; tools for the teachers to rethink the current practices; the importance of the interaction, and context; macro aspects, such as politics and history.

Keywords: Second language acquisition, young learners.
An Introduction to the Acquisition of a Second Language for Young Learners
Monteiro dos Santos, Natalie Regina
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Abstract: This article aims to offer a brief analysis of the historical events surrounding the migratory process in Latin America and the Caribbean, from the arrival of Europeans in the 15th century to today’s scenery, highlighting the problem of selectivity regarding the profile of the desirable and the undesirable immigrant. It is argued that there is a continuity of coloniality as a framework for differentiating immigrants based on race and for establishing anti-migratory policies to this day.

Keywords: Migrations. Latin America. Caribbean.
A Historical Perspective on Migrations in Latin America and the Caribbean
Moraes Cabral, Júlia
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Abstract: Background: Patients with Bipolar Disorder (BD) present alternating episodes of depression, mania / hypomania and eutymia. In previous researchs, limonene showed anxiolytic effects and was able to reduce the hyperstimulation and dopaminergic neurotramission induced by psychostimulants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of limonene administration on locomotion and exploration behavior in mice treated with methylphenidate (used for inducing mania in an animal model) using the Behavioral Pattern Monitor (MPC). Methods: Male Swiss mice (n = 75) were split in eight experimental groups. Firstly, saline, limonene or lithium were administered. Then, each mouse received saline or methylphenidate. After drug administration, locomotor and exploratory activity was observed. Data was analyzed by ANOVA followed by Duncan post-hoc test. Values p0.05 were considered significant. Results: Methylphenidate increased locomotory activity of the animals. The limonene-treated group didn´t show statistically significant results. Significant increase of the exploration wasn´t found in animals treated with methylphenidate compared to control group. A significant reduction of the holepokes and climbing was seen in lithium and limonene treated animals. Limitations: Video analysis were not done blindly. Conclusions: Limonene administration didn´t reduce methylphenidate-induced hyperlocomotion. Regarding exploratory activity, a significant reduction was observed in the limonene-treated group (200 mg / kg). However, administration of methylphenidate wasn´t able to the increase the exploratory activity, limiting the validity of the results. Thus, further studies are necessary to evaluate the effect of limonene on exploratory behavior in animal models of mania.

Keywords: Bipolar Disorder, Behavioral Pattern Monitor, Methylphenidate, Limonene.
Evaluation of the Effects of Limonene in a Animal Model of Mania
Mori Santos, Emilly Hanay
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Abstract: In view of the growing energy demand, energy storage systems are indispensable in most of the instances that compose and guide society. In this regard, lithium-ion batteries are one of the most significant forms to supply the energy demand of many applications that depend on the delivery of constant power over prolonged periods. They are a great alternative for small to large-scale applications. It is cognizable that they are electrochemical devices with high energy density and specific energy, and countless advantages for this purpose. Therefore, this paper is a brief literature review with the purpose of discussing and describing the prominence of these batteries in the context of energy storage. To this end, it is outlined from the introductory comments, a brief historical contextualization of the technology of lithium-ion battery, citing the discoveries that led to its recognition in the 2019 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, followed by a basic and general overview of its operating principle, moving on to a mention of its applications in everyday life, and finally addresses a preliminary perspective about what exists in the literature about the future of this technology, such as the so-called post-lithium-ion batteries, and its potential scientific and technological enhancement. From this, the conclusion of the literature review is elaborated given the constructed overview.

Keywords: Lithium-ion batteries, energy storage systems, electrochemical devices.
The Preponderance of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Energy Storage Systems: A Brief Review
Mota Gomes, Mariana
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Abstract: Even with COVID-19 rendering humanity largely unable to relate in the simplest form of face-to-face meetings, an alternative was found in the virtual world, where one could be simultaneously isolated from disease while being connected with people through the Internet. However, this solution has been worrisome as it could play part in accelerating issues related to Modernity, such as uprooting and creating a lack of touch with physical reality. This scenario, which is expected to be further pushed on by the emergence of metaverses and the risk of new pandemics, has created fertile soil for new forms of existing which are more fluid. How do people feel about that and how do they perceive themselves in this process? In order to shed light on this question, a survey was organized and issued on Discord’s servers, which are “places” of text and voice chatting that have significantly grown during the presented context. Although with sample restrictions, such a survey consisted of close-ended answers and provided the picture that virtuality indeed plays a significant role in the formation of memory and identities of the respondent users, which is manifested in their perceived behavior.

Keywords: User experience, Discord, Place, Avatarity, Virtual Reality
Organizing Discord: Survey on Online Spatiality, Identity, and Memory in the Platform
Musketo Gil, Gabriel
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Abstract: This paper reviews pertinent literature about international and domestic environmental law regarding especially protected areas, land use, and land-use change in Brazil. It also identifies and analyzes Brazil’s main legislation on Protected Areas and legal land clearing possibilities, particularly in Legal Amazon. The National System of Conservation Units (SNUC - Law No. 9.985/2000) and the Forest Code (Law 12.651/2012) are studied in relation to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), the Paris Agreement's goals and the country's Nationally Determined Contributions (2016 NDC). We look into the historical process of Legal Amazon occupation and the current state of protection, describing more than12 (twelve) types of protected areas ownership regime, main purpose (conservation, sustainable use, land-use change restrictions in private lands), and possible activities. Complexities, instruments, and fragility of Brazil’s main environmental laws are gathered and described, emphasizing the country's legal strengths to comply with international laws and global objectives to face the climate crisis.

Keywords: Legal Amazon, Protected Areas, Brazilian Forest Code, Land Use, Land Use Change.
Legal Framework on Protected Areas and Land Use Change in Brazil
Moreira Costa, Júlia
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Abstract: This article presents the theoretical foundations of the concept of constituent power in the works of Sieyès and Schmitt and analyses some contemporary approaches to this idea. These are organized in three different strands: one that deploys the concept in order to justify existing constitutional orders; a second one which sees it as relevant for articulating and proposing radical constitutional change; and a third that aims to suppress the concept from constitutional theory altogether, as it sees it as superfluous. The article argues that the first approach is inadequate because, although it employs the concept of constituent power, it lets other ideas (usually consent and acceptance, but sometimes democratic procedures) do the heavy normative work of justifying the constitution. Furthermore, it may obscure the real sources of legitimacy of a constitutional order. It further argues that the third approach has a democratic deficit and faces difficulties when it tries to grapple with the phenomenon of future constitutional change. It, however, contains an important idea, namely, that the legitimacy of a constitution may not depend entirely on the procedures used to adopt it. I argue that the second approach is the most adequate conceptualisation of constituent power as it is able to overcome the problems of the other two and incorporate some of their insights. It helps us to articulate and propose future constitutional change but recognises that the constitution-making process is not all that matters. It may help political actors to critically shape their demands and is also able to deal with the question of the legitimacy of existing constitutions, conceptualising this as parasitic on futureoriented constituent proposals.

Keywords: Constituent power, legitimacy, popular sovereignty, democracy, rule of law, legality.
Contemporary Approaches to Constituent Power: A Critical Survey
Nochang Heck, Leonardo
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Abstract: Hydrogels are colloidal molecules that are made with polymer matrices and swollen by water. With the increasing global interest in more eco-friendly materials and the need to adopt more green chemistry ideals, natural polymers are a topic of interest for research. Hydrogels made with natural polymer are normally used in biomedicine because of their excellent qualities such as biocompatibility, non cytotoxicity and biodegradability, although they present poor mechanical strength as one of the biggest disadvantages. In this paper it is shown some of the most used natural polymers for hydrogel and their uses in medicine. It is also mentioned how they are normally used as hybrid hydrogels, being able to present even better qualities such as higher mechanical strength. Lastly, it is mentioned about how drug delivery and wound dressing systems work and some examples with the use of the natural polymer in their hydrogel matrices are shown. Despite having excellent qualities for use in medicine, outside of the wound dressing area it is hard and unlikely to see the use of only natural origin polymers as a hydrogel matrix, but their use in hybrid hydrogel matrices present a good future, with the increasing studies each year.

Keywords: Hydrogel, natural origin, drug delivery, wound dressing, biomedicine.
The Future of Natural Origin Hydrogels in Drug Delivery and Wound Dressing Systems
Nunes Jung, Júlia
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Abstract: Relations between Russia and the western powers can still be defined in a logic of opposition and, sometimes, pragmatic cooperation, as in the past times of the Cold War. In this setting, we see States defining their futures oscillating between one or other hegemonic power, trying to seek a position of autonomy to better preserve their interests. This brief analysis aims to interpret and delineate the position of Serbia in this context. By examining how this country, which claims to be a close friend of Russia, has acted as a player of great importance to Vladimir Putin in the Balkans, we will see in what directions Serbia can go in the future. Through a rapid journey in the past thirty years up to the present moment, the quintessence of this paper is to put the following question: What is going to be Serbia's stance concerning the present Russia's foreign policy towards Europe, and how is this going to influence the ongoing Serbian procedure to integrate the European Union?

Keywords: Serbia, EU's enlargement, Russia's foreign policy, Balkans
Serbia: A Pragmatic Performance Between Russia and the European Union?
Oliveira, Patrick da Anunciaçăo
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Abstract: Contemporaneusly there is an mainstream political discourse in political and economical discussions that bases itself mainly on a supposed dichotomy between Market and State, both intrepretred as separate opposites that should not be coordinated: that is the free-market ideal. This article is focused on demonstrating different critical interpretations of the Market-State relations and its implications on material reality. The method utilized is the use
of literature review followed by analysis of divergent critical theories about this same topic. We conclude that literature shows a range of relations that show an inherent link between State and Market that should demonstrate the mainstream discourse of dichotomy as false.

Keywords: Imperialism, Capitalism, State-market relations.
The False Market-State Dichotomy in Capitalist Development
Oliveira Martins da Silva, Mateus
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The challenge to competition authorities presented by digital markets is the combination of some characteristics present in this specific market. The article explores how the characteristics of digital market present a challenge to the antitrust enforcement. Among the decision made by competition authorities worldwide, the Google Shopping Case demonstrated to be present in more than one jurisdiction, due to it, the present work intends to analyze the influence to the antitrust of the Google Shopping case in Brazil - that was judge by Administrative Council for Economic Defense - and Google Shopping case in Europe. Furthermore, a comparative between the two decision is development to prove the importance of Google Shopping case in each jurisdiction and how the competition authorities had different position towards Google alleged conducts.

Keywords: Digital Platforms, Google Shopping, Brazil, Europe, Antitrust.
An Overview of Google Shopping Case in Brazil and Europe Union
Paiva Alves, Malu
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Abstract: This paper conducts a brief contextualization of the tradition of landscape painting, mainly in western art, towards the rupture with its notion of “panoramic view”, in which the observer is detached from the context of the landscape, emphasizing contemporary artworks in which the body takes on a position of protagonist. To illustrate this change, we searched the collection of the Săo Paulo Museum of Modern Art, in Brazil, and chose three artworks, all of which suggest bodily involvement with landscape: André Cypriano’s photo Pai & filho [Father & Son], from the series Rocinha Project (1999-2002); Sandra Cinto’s photo Untitled (1997); and Sara Ramo’s video Oceano possível [Possible Ocean] (2002).

Keywords: History of Art, landscape painting, body, São Paulo Museum of Modern Art.
A Contemporary Approach to Landscape: Artworks from the São Paulo Museum of Modern Art’s collection
Palucci Marziale, Nicole
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Abstract: For about three centuries, Brazil was the country responsible for kidnapping the largest contingent of African people to be enslaved. Slavery left indelible marks on the country's history and, even after its formal end, continued to permeate social relations and the dynamics of social inequality. Despite this, a farce prevailed as a national identity and, for itself and for the world, Brazil sold the image of being a racial paradise. This process goes back to the name of Gilberto Freyre, author whose work was fundamental for the propagation of this fallacy. Several authors, especially from the 1950s onwards, questioned him and unmasked the true face of a profoundly racist society. In this brief article, I will bring the pioneering and fundamental contribution of the sociologist Floresntan Fernandes. Invited by Roger Bastide, Fernandes produced a revolutionary study of the country's racial dynamics and theoretically denounced Brazilian racial democracy as a myth.

Keywords: Brazil; Racial Democracy; Racism; Black Movement.
Racial Democracy in Brazil: Construction and Denunciation of the Myth
Pequeno Soares, Anita Maria
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Abstract: From the goal of maintaining the service life of a structure comes the need to determine the condition of the structure in situ and then plan an appropriate intervention. Especially when working with timber on historical buildings, all care must be taken in order to obtain proper data about its state, because the aim is not only the repair of the structure itself, but also the preservation of the history it carries with it. Having this in mind, this paper focuses
on the literature review on how to assess the structures of ancient and historical buildings made out of timber, the most common methods for determining structural integrity in situ, focusing on non-destructive testing (NDT), interventions that could be useful and the importance of each method. There is a great variety of species of timber with different properties such as density, strength, water absorption, etc., which makes it important to determine them as well as the type of wood which requires testing beyond mere visual inspection. It is noted that the solution proposed in each case must consider aspects such as the load configuration and ductility of the original structure so the intervention doesn’t change said aspects and, consequently, the global behaviour of the system. The substitution of members should always be avoided, and only considered in a situation that has no other solutions, since it compromises the aesthetics and historical values of the building.

Keywords: Assessment, Cultural Heritage, Historical Buildings, Intervention, Non-destructive Testing, Timber Structure.
Review on the Assessment and Repair of Cultural Heritage Timber Structures
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Pereira Andrade, Gabriel
Abstract: Human activities and the burning of fossil fuels to meet the planet's energy demands have triggered a growing emission of carbon dioxide (CO2), one of the main causes of the greenhouse effect today. Searching for ways to reduce CO2 emission or mechanisms that reduce its concentration in the atmosphere has been a challenge for scientists in recent decades. A path that is quite promising is the use of solar radiation to convert CO2 into high value-added products, through photocatalysis processes, in which the reduction of gas and the oxidation of reducing agents such as water occur. The application of inorganic semiconductors as photocatalysts in CO2 reduction processes has been extensively studied due to the economic viability that these materials present, in addition to the thermodynamic properties that favor photocatalysis processes. This study focused on understanding the basic principles of photocatalysis and the application of inorganic semiconductors such as sulfides, metal oxides, nitrides and oxynitrides in photocatalysis reactions, giving special attention to photocatalytic CO2 reduction systems based on titania (TiO2), an oxide metallic that presents great prominence due to its structure, chemical and thermodynamic properties. A brief historical summary of highly relevant studies using TiO2 in photocatalysis processes is presented, confirming its potential and outlining future perspectives for studies of photocatalytic reduction of CO2.

Keywords: Greenhouse effect, Principle of photocatalysis, Photocatalytic conversion of CO2, Inorganic semiconductors, TiO2-based catalytic systems.
Inorganic Semiconductors as Catalysts in the CO2 Photoreduction Reaction: A Review
Pereira Brasil, Marcelo
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Abstract: This article aims to analyze the bloodfeud that occurred between the families of “senhores de engenho” Pires and Camargo during the years 1640-1651, in the captaincy of Săo Vicente, in colonial Brazil, and to compare it with the cases of Feud and Vengeance that occurred in Medieval Europe. This “Private War” was one of the most famous in colonial Brazil, as it brings a Shakespearean memory of the rivalry between the Capulet and Montague.

Keywords: Vengeance, Feud, Senhor de Engenho, Blood Feud, Colonial.
Pires Against Camargo: Feud and Vengeance in Colonial Brazil
Pereira da Silva, Brendon Lucas
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Abstract: In this article it is presented an overview of the literature regarding the topic of Controlled Environment Agriculture (CEA) and its shifting from open-field to indoors applications. The efforts to make agriculture, in all of its steps, more efficient combined with the technological advancement of the last decades led us to a situation where not only the monitoring and control of several aspects of cultivation is possible, but it can be achieved on a small scale with low-cost solutions. This increased the technological access of microcontrollers, such as Arduino and Raspberry Pi, which allowed the development for academy research prototyping and emerging of novel concepts, such as smart greenhouses. With that, this literature review shows some of the recent works done by researchers, representing the possibilities of main applications in precision agriculture. The main goal is highlighting important aspects of using the mentioned technological platforms as a way of showing their relevance, and then provide further explanation on how these studies empowered the transition from field to indoors. Finally, it is concluded that technological advance has made possible the reliable control of different environments and made more accessible the research of CEA. But, on the other hand, there is still a lack of incentives for students and universities studying and solving problems to provide even more innovations regarding the field.

Keywords: Precision agriculture, Agriculture 4.0, Smart greenhouses, Microcontrollers.
A Review About the Transition of CEA’s from the Field to Indoors
Poiatto, Maycon
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Abstract: This review paper aims to sum up Günther Schlee’s main considerations about theories of ethnic conflicts. The interest in reviewing this topic is related to the author’s main academic ambitions to research the use of ethnicity as an argument for state violence in several regions. The paper is therefore divided into 4 topics. Firstly, an introduction about Günther Schlee and his work. Secondly, a discussion about the arguments used to defend ethnicity as the main cause of ethnic conflicts. This arguments are divided by Schlee into six main points: cultural differences/ethnicities are the cause of ethnic conflicts; the clash of different cultures reflects ancient oppositions; ethnicity is universal; ethnicity is ascriptive; a people is a community of shared descent; ethnic groups are territorial. Thirdly, an overview of Schlee’s theoretical frame to tackle the subject of ethnic conflicts and the different levels of analysis (A, B, and C), which considers: A) the semantic fields of identity concepts; B) the politics of inclusion and exclusion; C) The economics of group size and social position. Finally, combining the analysis with another review article about Günther Schlee’s work, written by Aleksandar Bošković and Suzana Ignjatovic´, some general conclusions are made about the analytical possibilities brought up by the book.

Keywords: Ethnic Conflicts, Ethnicity, Conflict Theory, Identity, Günther Schlee.
An Overview of Günther Schlee’s Theory on ‘Ethnic Conflicts’
Pussieldi Moratelli, Luísa
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Abstract: During COVID-19 pandemic, protective measures were taken around the world, such as isolation at home and mandatory wear of face masks. Consequently, common habits of using cosmetics products have changed. People were afraid of getting infected, increasing the use of cleaning products, and some problems related to face masks were noticed by consumers. Furthermore, with the stores’ closure, the brands had to find new channel sales. So, this study aims to analyze the impact of the spread of the pandemic in the perception and market of cosmetic products. This study is a literature review and a narrative review was adopted. The results have shown a positive effect in cleansing and skincare products, in which the responders stated an improvement of skin appearance when they were following a full face care routine. But the same was not detected in the wear of makeup. Moreover, with store closing and fear of getting infected by the virus, the frequency of visits to physical stores decreased and online shopping expanded after the outbreak. Hence, without the touch experience, people spent more time looking for reviews on the Internet and found out people that just didn’t share their opinion about products but also about their lives. As a consequence, consumers started to trust more on these digital influencers. Therefore, COVID-19 has indeed changed consumers’ preference of cosmetics, and, as some people intend to maintain some habits acquired during the pandemic, the companies need to be aware of the development of new technologies that attend to the new requirements. Moreover, the brands had also to adapt to new ways of sales and marketing to continue to deliver everyone.

Keywords: Skincare, makeup, maskne, online shopping, digital marketing.
Literature Review: How COVID-19 Pandemic Has Affected Perception of Cosmetics Products
Queiroz Rabelo, Cecília
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Abstract: Springs carry out an important role in structures, machines, engines and vehicles, the vehicle suspension is modelled like a mass spring damper system it is fundamental in vehicle projects because the suspension is responsible to absorb the hits of the contact with the ground, so a spring at the suspension is so important for stability and comfort to the driver. The spring used in a car’s suspension is of kind helical compression because it absorbs energy when it is compressed or extended. Due to a lot of application of springs, there are tables with many materials, where each material is indicated impact loads, fatigue loads, static loads and high temperature, for example, the spring design needs the correct material, otherwise, the spring will fail, besides is necessary to access tables to get standard value, because is cheaper to use standard values of parameters, otherwise is necessary to manufacture an unique part for the design. Is necessary to define spring index, Wahl factor (Kw), and transverse shear factor (Ks), these parameters are essential to design a spring and were used an iterative process to get the wire diameter of the spring. Therefore, is necessary to consult tables to choose the correct material and to choose the correct standard wire diameter, besides is necessary to use an iterative method to get the wire diameter.

Keywords: Spring stability, dynamic load, helical compression spring, stiffness, iterative method.
Spring Design for a Vehicle Suspension
Melo Paula, Lucas Matheus
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