Abstract: This papper describes a modeling and prototipate flapping wing ornithopter model. Before the studies about FMAV mechanisms and systems, four models were built to understand and replicated the theorical foundations based on Technology Readiness Levels. During the modeling process, fatigue results and material choices were expected and happened based on reference literature and wing model switching was effective for modeling success. The prototyping phase is being initiated based on the results found in the modeling.

Keywords: Flapping Wings, Ornithtopter, UAV, MAV, FMAV and TRL.
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Inspired by Birds: Engineering Allied to Nature
Dellamajora Lino, Murilo
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Abstract: Governmental regulatory activity impacts us daily, but mostly we do not even notice it. Probably nearly every product in our households has been affected by some state regulation, but most common citizens know almost nothing about how the regulatory process works. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to analyze the major works about how regulations are made. It is important to notice that this work does not have the objective of reviewing legal norms that indicates how regulatory processes work in one country or another, but to evaluate how public or political agents (regulators) tend to work, i.e., what tends to dictate their behavior, how lobbying activities affect regulation, what role do institutions have. To achieve its aim, the paper uses a methodology based on literature review. It was found that it is commonly assumed that regulators pursue society’s public interest, but many scholars have criticized this view over the years. One of the major schools of thought that opposes such assumption is the Public Choice. Even if many works have been conducted within the framework of the Public Choice school, it is possible to say that its major basis is the idea that public agents tend to pursue their own interests. The Theory of Economic Regulation was created among Public Choice scholars and assumes that industries that have enough power to buy legislation from politicians will most likely do it by providing votes and resources. Even so, other works have suggested that we cannot only assume that a regulator’s private interest will be the only factor that affects his behavior. The paper then also analyzes some works based on an institutional approach. This view aims in also studying how the regulatory institutions work (and not only individuals) and how external institutions may influence the regulatory process. The paper concludes by stating that we cannot be overly idealistic or too skeptical. Even if as general rule it is not possible to deny that most regulators are usually also influenced by their own private interests, it is also possible to value public interests within the government through institutional design.

Keywords: Public Law; Regulation; Public Choice; Public Interest Theory; Interest Group Theory.
How Are Regulations Made? From Public Interest Theory To an Institutional Approach
Delvaux Parma, Gustavo
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Abstract: Primary health care (PHC) can be viewed as a strategy to organization and reorganization of health systems. Based on Starfield (1994), primary care is based on essential and derivative attributes of PHC. The essential attributes are first contact access, longitudinality, comprehensiveness and coordination and the derivate attributes are family orientation, community orientation, and cultural competency. With regard to child health, the National Comprehensive Child Health Care Policy (PNAISC) summarizes how Brazilian child health care is organized, and indicates PHC as the central point of this care and as the coordinator of the other points of the health care networking. The goal of this paper was to evaluate the presence and extent of the attributes of PHC in child health care in Brazil. Methods: Systematic review conduced on Scopus with articles published between 2017 and 2021, focusing on PHC for children in Brazil and that used Primary Care Assessment Tool - Brazil (PCATool - Brazil) to evaluate the attributes of PHC. Results: Child PHC in Brazil had a satisfactory result on the some of the essential attributes of PHC and an unsatisfactory result on the derivative ones. The essential attributes first contact – utilization and coordination - information systems had an adequate outcome, while first contact – access didn’t perform well. Concerning longitudinality and coordination – care integration, the care provided present disparities between regions. The different outcomes on comprehensiveness is related to the type of service provided. Furthermore, the derivative attributes family and community orientation didn’t have a good outcome. Conclusion: Based on the results, child PHC in Brazil has strong attributes as first contact – utilization and coordination - information systems. However, it doesn’t present a satisfactory extent of all PHC attributes, with an unequal longitudinality and coordination – care integration among regions and a best comprehensiveness on FHS (Family Health Strategy). The North and Central-West regions need a better representation on studies concerning the attributes of child PHC.

Keywords: Primary health care, child health, evaluation of health services, quality of health care, attributes of PHC, PCATool – Brazil.
Attributes of Primary Health Care For Children In Brazil
Dias Pires, Evelly
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Abstract: During the 20th century, the importance of collaboration between States in the international system grew exponentially, especially due to the frightening consequences of the two world wars. In addition, technological advances, especially in the field of communication, have allowed greater contact and integration between nations across the globe. Therefore, the challenge of cooperation between States is of legitimate importance for Brazilian rulers, both for economic, social, cultural or humanitarian reasons and for Brazil's insertion in the international system. In 2010, recognition by COBRADI, the Lula government gives cooperatives different from the traditional ones to achieve as an important actor in the international system.

Keywords: International Cooperation, Lula Government, Foreign Policy.
COBRADI as an Instrument of “Graduation” During the Second Lula Government
Emídio Machado, Leonardo
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Abstract: This paper has the goal of analysing lab-grown meat, made from the extraction of animal cells. First, problems of the meat industry are debated. After that, a definition of lab-grown meat is sought, as well as clarifications about its synthetization. Subsequently, economic, environmental and market acceptance impacts are analysed, mainly on the context of the European Union and United Nations sustainability goals. The core of the debated proposed in this work is to examine if cultured meat products are able to be a solid alternative for traditional meat under three aspects: (i) environmental protection; (ii) economics and (iii) consumer acceptance. The paper uses concepts of environmental law; animals rights; green economics and sustainability for its development.

Keywords: Environmental Law; Lab-grown meat; Greenhouse effect; Food Law; Sustainability.
Cultured Meat: New Perspectives On the Meat Industry
Evans Barbati, Pedro
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Abstract: The objective of this article is to investigate how the theme of hunger and poverty in Haiti is being discussed in scientific research already carried out theorizing the theme, we adopted as methodological strategy, from a literature review, demarcate the following descriptors: 1) Hunger and poverty in Haiti, 2) Brazilian program Fome Zero, 3) Social programs and 4) Cultural Hunger in the period from August 17 to 23, 2021. We used two databases, of theses and dissertations available online: the Biblioteca Digital Brasileira de Teses e Dissertaçőes (BDTD) and the Catálogo de Teses e Dissertaçőes of the Coordenaçăo de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES). The linguistic technique called skimining was used to read the theses, and the analysis was done using the MAXQDA tool, software for qualitative and mixed methods research. It is concluded that the analyzed theses did not provide enough theoretical and conceptual indexes about Haitian hunger. It is considered a separate case that deserves dedication, discussion and reflections, besides the ideas of social programs, since these would imply in investments, funds that the government does not have, it is time for another way to understand the root of hunger and poverty in Haiti.

Keywords: Cultural Hunger; Hunger and Poverty in Haiti; Zero Hunger Program; Social Programs.
Theoretical Investigations to Explain Haiti's Famine
Exime, Ethol
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Abstract: By critically comparing the literature on feud in its emergence as an anthropological concept, in its development as a tool for interpreting late medieval societies (especially in the German and Bohemian contexts), and in its possible identification in the analysis of Amerindian tribal societies of Latin America, we discovered a legitimate hypothesizing of a concrete spectrum of the feud dynamics of fission and fusion that tends to an universal usage of the concept and further approximates the studies of pre-statal vengeance in different historical contexts.

Keywords: Peace, Feud, State, Tribe, Europe, Latin America.
Feuds For and Against Unity: A Critical Comparison
Falcăo de Andrade, Caetano
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Abstract: Infographics are, basically, information presented in a graphical way. It includes graphics, diagrams, images, illustrations, timelines and amongst other things, maps. This last feature presents the geo-location as data, and combined with infographics may expand the possibilities of thematic cartography, to the point that some authors apply the term geo infographics instead of thematic cartography. Attempting to reunite some perspectives about the comprehension, interpretation or understanding of infographics in maps, or geo infographics, this bibliographical review paper aimed to summarize a few studies on this topic. As a result, 6 studies were found, in which the analyses were separated by educational uses and other contexts. The first group combined bibliographical studies about the benefits of the use of geographic infographics for learning processes; a practical activity on the construction of traditional thematic maps and maps with infographics; and a guide providing more possibilities with the use of infographics in general as well as maps with infographics in teaching. In other contexts, a paper was found about the influence of journalism and social media in the cartographic patterns and maps elaboration; a call for the importance of including maps in the graphical information on disaster risks as a possibility to increasing the engagement in actions for self-protection; and an investigation on how maps and infographics may be used to spread some tendentious messages. In conclusion, there is a notable lack of studies aimed at checking the understanding or interpretation of infographics in maps in specific groups (such as divided by gender, age, educational level…) or with specific graphical materials (for example, testing different styles of maps, charts, colors, diagrams etc.).

Keywords: Infographics in maps, geoinfographics, graphic information, visual data, interpretation, apprehension, assimilation, perception, bibliographical research.
A Brief Literature Review About the Comprehension of Infographics in Maps
Félix da Rocha, Mariane
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Abstract: Throughout history, monetary control has always been in the hands of the State that plays this role in a centralizing way. However, the invention of a decentralized digital currency called Bitcoin in 2008, which at first seemed harmless, sent a warning signal that it could pose a danger and change the course of monetary history. Thus, this article aims to address the response offered by States in the face of the Bitcoin threat and the consequences of this choice based on monetary theories. Finally, it is concluded that, in fact, the advent of Bitcoin has changed the course of monetary history, however, everything indicates that the Bitcoin will not be the protagonist of this new digital age, but rather the States through the digital version of their national currencies known as the Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC).

Keywords: State. Digital currency. Bitcoin. Central Banks. CBDC.
Response of Sovereign States to Bitcoin: The use of Blockchain and the Central Bank Digital Currencies
Felix da Silva Mota, Felipe
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Abstract: Brazilian Pharmacy schools have been extensively adapting their course curricula in response to the latest national guidelines, published in 2017. However, the emergency of Coronavirus Disease 2019 has dramatically affected global education on several levels beyond the suspension of in-person classes, and the impacts promoted by this exceptional context are still unrevealing. This review aims to analyze the challenges and lessons for pharmaceutical education in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil and to discuss how the current transformations in the profession, also impacted by the pandemic, might influence the students’ development. Thus, a literature review was conducted on MEDLINE and Scopus databases. The few studies identified addressing this topic presented heterogeneous objectives and methods, but demonstrated varied initiatives to implement remote models and engage pharmacy students in this context. Different aspects of the educational process were addressed, evaluating parameters from mental health to the students’ satisfaction with active learning methods tested. Generally, the authors registered positive perceptions of the proposed interventions during the pandemic but reported obstacles such as mental health issues, compromised development of practical skills, structural limitations, and aggravated discrepancies between public and private education. The experiences mentioned in this narrative review should help to reexamine pharmaceutical education, considering aspects such as virtual flexibility, development of computational skills, and reinforcement of evidence-based health care. In addition, fundamental transformations in the pharmacy labor market must certainly impact the educational background of pharmacists in a near future, including the advances in telehealth and clinical pharmacy attributions.

Keywords: Pharmacy education, COVID-19, distance education, emergency remote learning, Brazilian education.
Pharmacy Education in Brazil on the COVID-19 Pandemic: Current State And Perspectives
Ferreira Bambirra, Eduardo Henrique
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Abstract: Due to the world's growing energy demand, more efficient power generation processes are crucial for global energy security in the future. A valid strategy to increase the total balance of available energy supply, without increasing the consumption of natural resources unrestrainedly, is to reduce the internal consumption of generating power plants, increasing the
final amount of energy generated. In the Brazilian electricity matrix, there is a large portion of thermoelectric power plants which were initially designed and installed as standby electric power plants, which were to be dispatched only on special occasions. However, as these facilities have an efficiency below the desired and their dispatches have constantly been more frequent than originally planned to supply the national electrical system, they present a great energy savings opportunity. This research developed a case study of the Luiz Oscar Rodrigues Melo Thermoelectric Power Plant (UTE LORM), in which data were collected from the supervisory system and alongside the equipment data, made it possible to develop a simplified computational model that evaluated the electric energy consumption of the existing three-phase induction motors in the radiators of the cooling system, when subjected to different speed controls based on the power supply voltage/frequency ratio. The superiority of keeping the V/f ratio in a quadratic behaviour, rather than a linear one, for fan-type loads was attested, by simulating the computational system model for both controls and assessing that the electric energy consumption was about 1,4% lower, resulting on an average efficiency nearly 2,1% higher during the operation of one of UTE LORM's generating units on a day with typical weather conditions.

Keywords: Environmental Law; Lab-grown meat; Greenhouse effect; Food Law; Sustainability.
Modelling and Analysis of the Cooling System Energy Consumption From Thermal Power Plants Powered by Internal Combustion Engine: Case Study or the Thermal Power Plant Luiz Oscar Rodrigues de Melo
Fonseca do Nascimento, Daniel
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Abstract: Innovations in the fields of virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) and the availability and usability improvements seen in recent years in these technologies have opened new possibilities in the field of foreign language learning. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) framework, this study conducted a review of seven recent original articles with empirical data focused on the second language (L2) acquisition using immersive reality technologies. The main aim of this study was to analyze what language skills and what proficiency of students’ language level benefited most from the use of these new technologies. In addition, the authors explored what kind of VR or AR was used since the term may refer to a series of technologies that are not all the same. For instance, VR might mean using headset displays, or it may refer to the use of interactive environments. The results indicate that the current VR and AR tools show a positive impact on L2 acquisition when compared to traditional learning methods, such as book-based learning. As with any recent research field, it should be noted that there are several methodological limitations and that it is necessary to consider the obtained results critically.

Keywords: Second language acquisition, language learning, applied linguistics, virtual reality.
A Systematic Review of Virtual Reality in the Acquisition of Second Language
Forero Pataquiva, Francisco de Paula
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Abstract: This mini- review was conducted with the purpose of gathering information, of articles published throughout the year of 2021, about the therapeutic properties that Hibiscus rosa-sinenis L. triggers in cases of gastrointestinal ulcers, a disease mainly caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori.
New antibiotics are needed for H. pylori, because of the rising antimicrobial resistance that the world is facing right now, and so, medicinal plants are on the scope to solve that matter. The Hibiscus rosa-sinensis has presented many therapeutic attributions over the past years, there were antibacterial properties found in the flowers and anti-inflammatory activities in the leafs, with that in mind, this medicinal plant must be a promising way to anti- ulcer treatments. Herbal/ traditional medicine is been widely used in the West asia for centuries, as for example the chinese medicine, and now, the eastern medicine is trying to catch up with this knowledge that can be so enriching, especially if we can substitute the synthetic for the natural. Every year thousands of papers are published on the same subjects, hence the importance of review papers, which study articles on related subjects and make an overview, highlighing some parts of each one.

Keywords: Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, ulcer, medical plants, anti-inflammatory potencial.
Anti-Ulcer Action of Hibiscus Rosa-Sinensis: Review of Articles Published in 2021
Gomes Gameiro, Beatriz
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Abstract: The present work was developed based on the necessity to ensure the air quality monitoring in places where there is a lack and difficulty of implementation due to the high cost of monitoring stations. The SDS011 sensor and the Beta BAM1020 attenuation monitor were used to evaluate the concentration of particulate matter. Duplicates of the sensor were used in the monitoring site for comparison with the equipment, and to evaluate the readings and the association with temperature and humidity data according to hourly and daily averages. Weak correlations were obtained, with R˛ maximum value equal to 0.38, and a variable behavior of readings estimation of the low-cost sensor in relation to the reference equipment, evaluated from the regression lines and the calculation of bias errors, which suffered influence from abruptly high values. The precision was evaluated based on the coefficient of variation, with a maximum value of 43%, and the maximum data completeness suffered a decrease due to energy losses at the monitoring site, reaching a maximum value of 59%.

Keywords: Air quality monitoring, particulate matter, low cost sensor.
Analysis of a Low-Cost Sensor for Particulate Matter Monitoring
Gonçalves Dias Chaves, Marianna
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Abstract: There are a growing number of counter-hegemonic Brazilian scientific productions. The gradual process of decolonization of Brazilian universities, a result of the struggle of social movements, has opened space for researchers to present alternatives for scientific production. In this paper we will work with the hypothesis that there is a significant number of Brazilian academic works that seek to detach themselves from hegemonic theories based on new alternatives of epistemologies, ontologies and value systems. To support it, we point to ten works that use emerging epistemologies and ontologies and value systems to formulate conceptions and theories about socially marginalized groups.

Keywords: Decolonization; emerging epistemologies; counter-hegemonic theories; marginalized groups.
Brazilian Scientific Production: Emerging Epistemologies, Ontologies and Value Systems
Guanabara Neves, Daniel
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Abstract: Freshwater fish whose migration course is blocked by a hydroelectric power plant often pass through the turbine rather than through safer passageways in their effort to reach the tailrace. As such, they are often subjected to harmful interactions with the turbine mechanism, which can result in injuries or death. This study investigated the main causes of injury to fish in these conditions, and existing design solutions to mitigate these harmful effects, through a literature review. It was found that the main mechanisms for fish injury are strikes against moving and stationary parts, grinding from being stuck in small gaps, decompression from sudden pressure shifts, shock waves from gas bubbles, deformation from shear stress, and disorientation from turbulence. Additionally, fish size and species are two of the most important factors for their survivability, and must be taken into account for the specific river where a turbine is set to be installed. The main existing design proposals for fish-friendly Kaplan and Francis turbines which seek to mitigate these issues are the reduction of gaps between the runner blades and both the hub and turbine housing; the reduction of gaps between stay vanes and wicket gates; a decrease in blade count and consequent creation of more space for fish passage; and turbines with controllable rotational speed and guide vane angles, to allow for operation in the maximum efficiency range, with minimum pressure change and turbulence.

Keywords: Fish-friendly turbine, fish mortality, hydropower, fish passage, state of the art.
A Review of Existing Design Principles for Fish-Friendly Hydro Turbines
Guglielmin Becker, Álvaro
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Abstract: This paper aims to analyze the social and ambiental impacts which came from the construction of Belo Monte hydroelectric in Pará State, Brazil. Despite the discourse of governments authorities about the development that this hydroelectric would bring to the region, in practice, according to the literature review, other points can be demonstrated, such as the impact of Belo Monte’s plant on social groups and the resettlement that they were subjected to. Moreover, the approach given by the government to the ambiental consequences and especially for the community was, still, analyzed by human rights authorities, as the Interamerican Court of Human Rights. In the article, the main points of view on the topic addressed were highlighted and explained, taking into account the motivations of each interested party. According to the point of view presented, the intention was not to solve these issues, but analyze the
main points vinculated with the social groups impacted by the construction and the ambiental damages, as there is still much to be taken into account, which adds to the complexity of the subject. This demonstrated objective was to impartially show the different points opposed, thus opening precedents for questions still unanswered. In conclusion to the work, it was based on the occurrence of EIA (Ambiental Impact Study - Estudo de Impacto Ambiental) and its effort (or lack of it) to contemplating all the aspects that should be analyzed, such as the recognition of each social group affected and also the environmental areas flooded or damaged with the drought of the alteration of the river course.

Keywords: Belo Monte. Hydroelectric. Social impact. Ambiental impact. Human rights.
Belo Monte: A Macro View on Environmental and Social Impacts at Pará
Guimarăes do Nascimento, Laryssa
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Abstract: This study investigated the effects of mass vaccination against the aggressive COVID-19 pandemic. The first case of this disease in Brazil occurred in February 2020, but vaccination campaigns only started in January 2021. Even with vaccination started almost a year after the beginning of the pandemic, they were efficient, reducing deaths by 74% in five months.

Keywords: Brazil, Vaccine, Immunization, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2.
Effects of Mass Vaccination Against COVID-19 in Brazil
Henrique de Souza Sanches, Leonardo
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Abstract: During a growing national and international climate agenda, one of the most important international climate funds emerged, the Amazon Fund (AF), along with it, increasing drops in the level of deforestation were observed. However, this Fund was destabilized with the arrival of the Bolsonaro government to the presidency of Brazil, leading, among others, to the freezing of resources by the main funders of the AF. Today, with the new Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report and after the 26th Conference of the Parties (COP26), it is necessary to analyse what the AF has been doing so far and what are the possible paths it may take in the coming years. To answer these questions, an analysis of primary sources was carried out - such as the AF activities report, INPE data, and others -, in addition to a broad bibliographic review, consultation of articles, and press news. It was observed that throughout its years of operation, the AF has positioned itself as a mechanism of great innovation, but despite the possible criticisms of it, hardly anyone could say that the Fund had a negative balance in the period, because in addition to the remarkable numbers presented by the AF in its years of operation, there was a constant learning curve for both the BNDES and the other actors. In the Bolsonaro government, despite efforts to maintain continuity in its actions, the AF suffered serious blows, which reflected in its performance, but with the prospect of new governments and policies, a window opens for the Fund to reinvent itself and reappear. as the avant-garde instrument, it was created to be.

Keywords: Amazon Fund, Sustainable Development, Bolsonaro; Deforestation; Green Gas Emission.
The Amazon Fund, Retrospect and Possibilities (2008 -?)
Jukemura, Felipe
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Abstract: This paper aims at analyzing the current, the past as well as a prospect of the future situation of infrastructure in Latin America, by presenting the historical integration attempts, their failures, and the ideology behind them. It also gives an insight into missing components to the development of the Region, such as geographical research, mobility planning, and policy analysis. Besides that, it also focuses on the German Model and its benefits, especially for underdeveloped countries that struggle to attract foreign capital.

Keywords: Latin America, Integration, Infrastructure, Development
The Economic and Integrational Effects of Infrastructure Investment in Latin America
Kocsis França, Gustavo
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Abstract: During this first period, the objective was to create three complexes, all containing palladium as a metallic nucleus and thus varying a radical between Chlorine, Iodine and thiocyanate, associating the known biological activity of Pyridines with palladium and platinum complexes, which also already has recognized biological activity. To date, such compounds, including the final complexes and their ligands, were synthesized and underwent the following characterization procedures: Hydrogen Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, infrared absorption spectroscopy and elemental analysis. So far, the characterization of the complex with the chlorine group has been carried out by means of infrared absorption spectroscopy, Hydrogen Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and elemental analysis, all of which favorably indicate the complexation, by the proportions of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen composition – in in the case of elemental analysis –, by the infrared bands and finally by the NMR spectrum, which indicated the amount of expected hydrogens. In the case of the iodine ligand, the NMR spectrum and the infrared spectrum were performed, both also satisfactorily indicating the complexations, through the appearance of bands that indicate the complexation of the metallic nucleus with the Iodine radical and the NMR hydrogen count, also within expectations. Finally, the thiocyanate complex was only characterized by the IR spectrum, as it was not possible in a timely manner to carry out further characterizations, but this spectrum was faithful to what was expected by the complexation with the metallic nucleus, due to the disappearance of certain bands and the emergence of some bands that characterize the complexation of these radicals to the metallic nucleus. Biological activity has not yet been evaluated.

Keywords: Anticancer activity, Imidazole, Palladium(II) and Platinum(II).
Development of Unprecedented PD(II) and PT(II) Complexes Derived From Imidazole
Labruna Cunha, Vito
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Abstract: This study analyzed theses and master's dissertations of indigenous women in public universities of Brazil. The history of the colonization in Brazil left traces of a power dynamic that devalued indigenous culture. With this, the monopolization of knowledge and communication was established by people who reinforce the Eurocentric production of knowledge. We outlined a study that crossed the lines of indigenous women's productions with the discussions already produced by researchers of the decoloniality in human sciences. We faced the silencing processes that these women went through during their studies. We identified the difficulties of dissemination of these important works and the impacts generated by the new dynamics of those who were once objects of study and slowly occupy their spaces in a claim for their place of speech. Therefore, we highlighted the need for direct action by universities to encourage and better disseminate the counter-hegemonic productions of indigenous women.

Keywords: Indigenous women, decoloniality, colonisation, dissertations
Decoloniality of Knowledge: Scientific Dissemination of Indigenous Women Productions
Lares Kludasch, Nara
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Abstract: “Knowledge shall be sought for worldwide and thus be strengthened the foundation of the imperial polity.” These worlds from Emperor Meiji personify the efforts of the Japanese government to transform their nation from a feudal society to a modern state capable of defending itself and its interests. In it, the armed forces would have, since their inception, a vital role in the development of Early Meiji Japan and its positions abroad, possessing a hold on the halls of power that would give it an opening to take control decades later. This study aims to determine how the military influenced the decisions of the new establishment in this period, generating consequences that would define Japanese international policy toward its goals and neighbors. Among the topics that explain how Japan’s journey through the Meiji Restoration was affected by the armed forces’ involvement were the reasons it was needed and the problems faced at the time, internally and externally, during its modernization process. In the coming years, it would fulfill its purpose, be it as an offensive or defensive force, with potential issues to Japan’s security abroad, allowing the armed forces the momentum to advance its interests, such as how it assisted in the creation of a Western-style government while at the same time preventing it from possessing the capacity of extensive interference in their affairs, creating a situation where the military could in certain times circumnavigate edicts from the civilian government and, which would occur decades later, assume political power to the point of taking total control. After analyzing books and articles of several renowned authors that worked in this area, the hypothesis that answers this debacle is that the reason why the armed forces were able to influence the government’s foreign policy was that the process of the Meiji Restoration created a system under which it could assert its interests and views on what it constituted as of significant importance to the security of Japan.

Keywords: Meiji Restoration, security, modernization, foreign pressure, army.
The Meiji Restoration and the Influence of the Armed Forces
Leite Ferrari, Miguel
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Abstract: This essay aimed to analyze the Foucauldian concept of State racism in order to provide a thorough explanation on racist discourse. Although Foucault already provided a good account on the construction of the violence of the sovereign, whose power to decide over life and death is justified, it lacks a profound approach on how discourse can create not only a legitimation of power, but also an intolerant, destructive desire, spread among the population. This was explained by what Deleuze and Guattari called the imbrication between micro and macropolitics, whence specific assemblages are created in order to diffusely support the appropriation of State by a destruction machine. Although not perceived by the authors themselves, such idea arguably can fit well the Althusserian concept of ideology as a creation of subjectivity and, therefore, desire. Fascism, understood then as a desire of destruction, encompasses all the well-known forms of intolerance. Racism appears as its main character, since it is the idea of saving the biological purity of a superior race as a requirement to survive, that justifies the fascist cleansing – which ultimately culminates in the destruction of the self; the war machine becoming a suicidal State. The aforementioned increasingly violent process, in all of its stages, is built within the subjectivities of the people. Thus, its battlefield is a discursive where it is possible to face the cancerous Body without Organs of fascism through the creation of lines of flight.

Keywords: Microracism, State racism, Micropolitics, Discourse, Desire, Ideology.
Microracism: Diffuse Violence as Discourse and Desire
Lima Castro Tranjan, Alexandre
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Abstract: The macroeconomics studies understands the economy as a mathematical form that reflects reality, therefore the base of this field finds itself in equations and functions with variables that correspond to our world, in this perspective each variable changes for each country in each moment of time. Therefore there is always the need to give those calculations and results for the academic community for recent analysis, since the economy is always changing. In this understanding, the University of Pennsylvania is one of the many institutions that are responsible for providing the information collected from many countries from 1950 to 2019, and from those information I calculated the variables of the Cobb Douglas function by the development and growth accounting method, following the David Weil steps described in his books, and after that I made an statistical analysis from those results for the recent data.
Through that method I found out the new outcome, physical capital, workers, and productivity to each country in 2019, and also for past periods of time, however only the 2019 results are relevant for this project. Then, after that I found out that the productivity growth rate of a country is responsible for explaining 80% of the product growth rate variation, much more than used to in 2009, in Weil studies. This shows the importance of making those calculations for the policymakers, for example, that must invest in increasing the productivity of the economy instead of the factors of production to achieve long prosperity.

Keywords: Development accounting, growth accounting, productivity, factors of production.
The Production Function - Recent Calculation and Analysis of the World Data
Lorandi Silveira Lara, Rebecca
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Abstract: A systematic review of the origin of the self and the concept of objective self-awareness. Describing the earlier theories of the self, introducing the child behaviour and the influences of environment on the construction of the self. Specifically, in early childhood when self-awareness takes on more in psychological manifestation. In other to the self- referential which is verbalized to attributes and behaviours. Approaching the development of social understanding of the self and others. Furthermore, are introduced the theories of objective self-awareness and its effects. Finally, this article offers the recent progress on those theories and highlights the issues that have been discovered however, still unsolved. Nevertheless, it launches light on a new perspective of the problems and brings gaps for future research.

Keywords: Self-consciousness, self-awareness, self, and objective self-awareness.
Understanding Self and Objective Self-Awareness: Systematic Review of the Literature
Lucio Henrique, Enzo
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